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A T R E A T I s E ufefiil for fuch 
as are to fpeak in Publick. 

By Marim D'AJJigny^ B. D, 

Omnls difciplina Memoria confiat/ruftra- 

que docemur^ ft quicquid audimus ^rcc- 

terfluat. Quintil. lib. ii. 
Rerum omnium thefaurus Memoria efi, 

Cic. I . de Orac. 
Conftat Memoriam habere quiddam arti- 

ficii^ ^ non ommm a natura ^roficifci. 


London^ Printed by J,D. for Jindr. Bell 
at the Crofs-Keys and Bible in Corn- 
h'll^ mar Stocks'tnarket J i6^j. 

/^-S g/^370. M3 

( ¥ ) 

To the Young Students of 
both LIniverfities, 

I Need not tell you j Gentlemen^ 
how tifeful this Art is and may 
he to you^ whatever Employ^ 
mentyou are to undertake in Church 
or State, As it is the 7nofl dejira- 
hie Faculty for the enriching your 
Minds with rare Sciences and £\now^ 
ledges^ and the gathering from your 
Stations thofe rich Jewels that will 
caufeyou one day to appear the greatejl 
Ornaments of your Age and Nation ; 
it is aljo the mojl excellent Ahtlity 
A 3 for 

<vi' The Dedication. 

for the perfeBing of all your Natu. 

ral ferfeBions, and procuring to you 

a red Happniefs U this Life, and art 

eLernalFelicitfin the next. 

Seem therefore that Jo many and 
apparent Advantages de^md upon 
your Memories, and the Improve^ 
went of them, pray be not mntmg 
to your fehes;neglea not tins Gift 

of God, fujfer k not to be idle and 
nfelefs, but employ it for tie ^ur- 
pofes intended by the Donors Wtfmi 

and 'Bounty. . 

J/ you have capacious and officious 
Memories able to nceiye, contain and 
prefer-Ve much, keep them not ^as 
empty 'Bladders, puft up mthmnd 
avdVanc^, hut fill them while you 
are at the Fountam with the proflta- 
- . Jotmd 

The Dedication. vii 
found Learning, and of trueWifdom^ 
and of thofe liberal Arts and Sciences 
hy which you defign to he ufeful, and 
do good in your Generation. 

Let your Ele'Vation he neVer fo 
great y and your Sirth neVer fo con- 
fiderabky Learning, I\nowledg and 
Wifdomlifill add a greater Splendor 
and Glory to your Nobility, andpro^ 
cure to you a greater Veneration from 
thofe who are to be fubjeEl to your 
Commands and T)o??iinion. Picus 
Father and Son, Earls of Mimndu- 
la, tho Men of great Eminency in 
our late days, thought the Exercife 
of their Memories in the ftudying of 
all manner of Sciences to be no O.i-' 
nmution to their Nobility, but ra- 
ther a conftderable Increafe to their 
Native Honour ; for one of them 
A 4 pub- 

viii The Dedication. 

Itfhed at KomCy Tihtks de om- 
nibus Scientiis, with a Tromife to 
defray the Charges ^f thofe Learned 
Meriy if poor^who would haVe the 
^leafure to travel to oppofe and 
difpute with him. And if you pleafe 
to look into Anti(^uityj how many 
ISLohle and Famous CMeny how many 
i\ings and Princes haVe purchafed 
to themfehes eyerlafling ^no^ii 
hy the Exercife of their Mejnories^ 
ly their hduflry^ Studies and great 
Learning I Cato the Elder ^ at the 
Age of %Q Years y pleaded his own 
Caufe when aceufed by his Adverfa^ 
rles of a Capital Crime ; and it was 
ohferyedy that neither his Memory 
failed him, nor his Countenance 
chanzed. Themiftocles that No- 
ble Athenian^ could call all his feU 


The Dedication.' ix 

loti^ Citi:^ns by their proper Names 5 
and when he l^as hanljhed into Per- 
fia, he learnt in a few Months the 
Perfian Tongue^ that he might he 
ahle to fpeak to ^ng Darius mth- 
out an Interpreter. And in our 
late Ages IQng Alfonfus, Aver- 
roes, and Avicenna, were noted 
for their Learning as mil as fvr 
their TSlohility. 

Memory is a rich and precious 
Jewelj ifpolijh'dy ufed and improved ; 
hut if jujfered to he idle^ it is as a 
^earl of great Value in thz Hands 
of a fiothful or unskilful and igno- 
rant Atiji* 

To this purpofe Erafmus fpeafu 
yery well. Ad native Memo- 
riae vim natura felicem accedat' 
incelligencia, cura, exercicatia 

X The DedicatioftJ 

& ordo, ad memoriam confir- 
mandam non nihil opis polli- 
centur medici: fed praecer ea 
quae diximus plurimum confert 
perpetua vitae lobrietasj nam era- 
pula& ebriecasut ingenium he- 
becanc, ita memoriam prorfus 
obruunt, Officit etiam curarum 
varietas & turba negotiorum, 
officit & tumukuaria diverfo- 
rum voluminum lc3:io. And 
again he /aithy Optima memorisE 
Arseft & penicLis intelligere, in- 
telledta ia ordiaem redigere, po- 
ftremo fubinde repetere quod 
meminifle velis. Certainly fuch 
haVe a great advantage who are 
gifted with a large Memory^ hut it 
can yield neither them nor others 
any "Benefit:, unkfs they employ this 

■ Gift 

The Dedication. xi 

Gift for the Fur pojes chat their wife 
God hath defined in the Donation^ 
And let it be ne^er jo flrong and 
large by 'Mature j it jnay be improved 
and increafed by Art and their In-- 
duflry^ to the compleatin^ of their 
Felicity both Temporal and Eternal, 

'But if l>lature feems to deny 
fome of you this Advantage^ and 
you are not fo ready and perfect as 
others in the ufe of this excellent 
Ability^ you are not therefore to [light 
the leafl Gifts of God in your Crea- 
tiony but flill to endea'Vour the Im- 
proVement and Increafe of them^ 
Let your Labour and Jndujtry flri'Ve 
to Jupply the Deficiencies of Nature^ 
and poitfh this Gijt^ this precious 
fetpel by a continual Exercife* 
Demofthenes, the frince of the 


xii The Dedication.^ 

Greek Qratorsy had fuch Natural 
ImperfeBionSj as made him unfit to 
fpeak in publick ; jet by his refolute 
and VertuoHS Endeavours he attained 
to the higheft pitch of Terfe^ion 
and Qlory in Oratory. Art may 
procure to us divers Excellencies 
which Nature feems to keep from 
m ; and the "Divine ^Bounty grants 
many times to our affidual Labours 
what was refufed to our Sirth at 
firft. The /paring Hand of Na- 
ture in bejlowing this Ability J]?ould 
rather proVoke our ^efolution to 
get it by other means^ than cauje us 
to flacken^ or difcourage our Endea- 
vours ; for according to the old Greek 
proverb y ^(tkoacx. Td ^jeKoc^ the greats 
er the Vifficulty in the Attempt^ th^ 
greater ViH be the Glory and Satif- 


The Dedication.' xiii 

faB'ton in eyercoming It : for of all 
the ^erfeElms of the Mind there 
is none more capable of a greater 'Im- 
provement than Memory^ and none 
will reward our Labours ivith more 
fatisfaEiory Returns than this ex- 
cellent Ability when we can attain 
to any FerfeEiion. ¥ray conftder 
therefore^ you who are like to want 
the fife of this rare Faculty in the 
following courfe of your Lives ^ and 
in the Imployments that you deftgn to 
engage your fehes in^ how much it 
concerns you now to polijh and in^ 
creafe your Memories^ and exercife 
them frequently ; for^ as a Roman 
Author ohferVesy Memoria minui- 
tur nifi exerceas earn. Iho the 
Labour may he great at fir ft becaufe 
of your Natural ImperfeHions^ the 

xiv The Dedic:ation. 
Difficulty is to be oyercome by Art ; 
and what ts ivanting to you tn TSla- 
ture^ the other 1>^ l^p[^b ^^^ ^^^^^^» 
^ray weigh and confider theje fea- 
fonable Verjes applicable to my Pur* 

Quifquis defidiam, luxumq- fe- 

quetur incrtern, 
Dum fugic appofitas incauta 

mente Uboresj 
Turpis inopfq; finiul miftrabile 

tranfigec aevum. 

The Advantages that the Exer- 
cife of Memory will procure to you 
are innumerahk j toyou^ GentlemeUy 
chiefly^ who deftgn to injlruch the 
Nation from the Pulpit : for be fides 
the Honour^ Glory, Efieem and Va- 

The Dedication. xv 

lueihat you will thereby okatn from 
your Congregations by this way of 
Delivery^ bejides the greater Effi- 
cacy and Power that your Words and 
breaching will ha^e upon the Minds 
of your Auditors^ be fides the fro- 
moting of the Glory of God^ and 
perhaps the perfwading a greater 
Number thereby out of the broad 
^ad of Eternal Perdition, I mufi 
needs tell you that you will quickly 
find an unfpeakable benefit in a few 
Years ; and your great Tains at fir ft 
in conquering your natural Weak- 
neffes will be fully recompenfed with 
a greater Eafe, Tleafure and Ve- ~ 
light in the pubUfhing of your Me- . 
Stations. You will find that this 
way of Delivery wtll fmooth and 
poltjh your Conceptions and Fancy. 


%yi The Dedication ^ 

Jou will find that it will mty your 
Tongues J and make you more ready 
to exprefsyour fehes: you l^ill find 
that your Labours will he the lefsy 
your breaching more acceptable^ your 
Improvements greater^ your Learning 
more founds and your fehes able 
upon a Judden to anfwer all Gain- 
fayers ; for by this means the %ody 
of DiVinity will become as familiar 
to JOU as your Pater Nofter. An- 
tifthenes, the Athenian Thilofo- 
pher, when a Friend complained that 
he had lofi: his Sook where he had 
recorded weighty Matters^ told him - 
that he ought not to haVe trufi:ed 
things of fo great Importance to 
^en^ Ink and Taper^ but to hii 
Memory^ where he Jhould always have 
found them ready at hand in time of 
need. There 

The Dedication^ xvu 

Then is one Advantage more 
which we [hull receive hj the Exer- 
cife of our Memories : how confide- 
rahle it may be to us, and what In- 
fluence it may haVe to increafe and 
inlarge our Eternal Happinefsj we 
may at a cliftanceguefs 5 for thereby 
the Soul will he inahled to increafe 
its Ahilitiesy Faculties and Graces^ 
which haye a natural Dependance 
upon this of Memory, and that alfo 
will be inahled to retain more • be- 
caufe as there is a ftriB Union and 
Communication of all the ^erfeBions 
het-^een the Soul and Sody . fo that 
if one receives an Inlargement^ it 
conveys the fame ^Benefit to the other ^ 
and the other becomes more perfeB 
and accomplijhed in that Ability which 
its Partner enjoys : The Exercife 
^ there- 

xviii The Dedicatioti^ 

therefore of Memory will not only' 
inable the Organ now to perform more 
perfeEl ASls^ and inlarge the Ability 
while the Sotilis in ConjunSlimt with 
the ^ody ; but at its Separation^ and 
at the great Morn of the ^furreElion^ 
this TerfeBion with all the refl^ h- 
ing as immortal as the Spirit where it 
Is fixty and to which it is conveyed^ 
hy our conjlant Endeavours and Cor- 
refpondence with the !Bodyj will then 
appear more compleat and greater^ for 
the better ^ception of future Glory 
and 'BUfsy and to our eVerlaJling Com- 
fort and SatisfaElion : Therefore as 
St. Bernard yery well expreffeth 
himfelf^ Ad a^ternitatis Gloriam 
acquirendam nullus labor du- 
rus, nullum tempus longum vi- 
dcri debet. In VoB. 


The Dedication. x\x 
I would not haye thofe Worthy 
and Learned Gentlemen of my FunBi^ 
on be difpleafed with this Exhorta- 
tion and AdVtce that 1 addrefs to 
the Students of our Uniyerjttiesj as 
if it were defigned to undervalue 
their wife and profitable Meditations 
pronounced with the J jfi fiance of 
^ookfrom the Tulpit. Our Nation 
only is ufed to this way of Delivery ; 
for we are wont ofttimes^ as we 
oughty to confider and weigh the 
Things and Exprefftons more than 
the manner of the Publication. Nei- 
~ ther is it poffibl/e for them after a 
TraSl of Time and a long Ufage to 
change their Cnfiom of preaching. 
!But for the Toung Men coming 
up to fupply our Vacant Places in 
Church and States 'tis now in their 
a X Tower 

x% . The Dedication. 
Tower to alter this Cujlofriy to exer* 
ctje their Memories j to follo'W the 
^raStice of the Learned Men of other 
Illations : 'Tis now in their Tower 
to ufe themfelves to juch a TraBice 
as will he advanta^ious to the Glory 
of God^ the Salvation of Souls^ the 
Credit of our Churchy and infinitely 
heneficial to themfelves. 

I recommend therefore this Trea- 
fife principally to yoUy Gentlemen ; 
and let nothing hinder you from the 
Exercife of your Memories y and the 
TraBice ofthe^les here prefcribedy 
which I tpill affure jou from Expe- 
rience haye proved effeBual for the 
oyercommg the Weakneffes of TSla^ 
turey and' inahling frail Memories to 
perform the AHs of large andflrong. 
If fome of them feem commony de-^ 

The Dedication. xxi 

fpife them noty they tvUl he no lefs 
ufeful if put in Practice. J haVe 
not only confuhedy in the deli'Very of 
theniy my own Kjiowledg and Expe- 
rience ^ but have alfo fet down the 
Advices of feyeral Learned Men 
about this SubjeBy and borrowed 
from the Skill of the ^hyftcians 
federal approved Experiments for 
the flrengthening and corroborating 
the Faculty of Memory. 

HoweVery 1 intreat yoUy Gentle^ 
meny to accept kindly from my Ten 
this Endeavour for your benefit and 
the Tublicky anj this ftncere Ex- 
preffton of my earnefl Defire -ofyour 
Succefsy Promotions and Advan- 
tagesy and of the Profperity of our 
Church and Nation. 

xxii The Dedication.' 

1 hefeech Qod of his Infinite 
bounty to make you all truly u/e- 
ful in your Generation^ to inlarge 
your Memories^ increafeyour Learn^ 
ingj blefs all your Abilities and 
Graces J and to preferVe you all to his 
Eternal IQngdom. Amen, 


PAge 8. line penult, dele alL P. lo. 1. 27. read 
iv%kix6iA' P. 25. I. 28, r.fufcitat. P. 45. 
1. 26. r. tarn, P. 54. 1. 3. r. capillk, P. $7. 1. 24. 
r. linguam, P. $%. i. 5. r. di^a, P. 59. I. ig. r. 
albu I. 24. put a colon after di^as. P. do. 1. 2<5. 
r. bull'mnt, P. 61. 1. 4. uStkhados, 


( xxiii ) 



Chap. I. /^P ^^^ Soul or Spirit of 

Chap. 2. Of Memory^ its Seat, and. 
Excellency^ p. i8 

Chap.^. The Temper or Diff option of 
the Body beji and rvorjl for Memory^ 
with the Natural Caufes andReafons 
of bothy p. JO 

Chap. 4. Some General and Phyjical 
Ohfervations and Prefcript ions for the 
remedyingjfirengthning^ and rejloring 
a Memory injured by the ill Temper 
of the Body, or the Predominancy of 
one of the four Qualities in the 
Brainy p, 38 


xxiv The Contents^ 

ChaD <* What is -very much prejudicial 
to the Faculty, HMt, and Prdtice of 
Memory, , _,, . P- 4^ 

Chap d.Offuch Natural Thmgs 4S 
Jay be afijti»gto, and may comfort 
Memory, from the Procurement of 
Nature, and the Contrivance oj 
Art P-\9 

Chap.'?, P^i*l^^ ^0 ^' ^^f'""""^ f'"' ^i^ 
MsorPraBiceof Memory, p. 62 

Chap 8. Rules to be ohferved to help 
our Remembrance of things that rve 
defire to preferve in Mtnd, p. 77 

Chap. 9- Of Artificial or Fantafttcal 
Memory or Remembrance, p- 82 


( 1 ) 

The Art of Memory^ &c. 

CHAP, h 

Of the Soul or Spirit of Man. 

TH E Excellent and Wonderful 
Frame of the Human Bodyy 
wherein the Wifdom of the 
Creator fhines fo beautifully 
and apparently before our Eyes, being 
but the Cabinet of the Soul, or the out- 
ward Shell, made on purpofe to receive 
and entertain this Immortal Creature,, 
gives good reafon to imagine that this 
Jewel is far more excellent and of a grea- 
ter Worth. Certainly our Wife Maker 
had no meanEfteem of this Mafter-piece 
of the Creation, feeing he hath cau- 
fed all Vifible Beings to be defigned for 
the Good, Afliftance, Pieafure^ Recrea- 
tion, Happinefs^ and Glory of Man. 
B There^ 

i The Art of Memory. 

Therefore at the firft forming of Adam^ 
the Sacred Trinity proceed with Deli- 
beration, and ad together with an ex- 
' traordinary Care and Confultation ; Let 
us make Man after our own Image, Man 
bears both in Body and Soul a lively Re- 
semblance of the Unity and Trinity, and 
the Relation that our Almighty God has 
to this great World. For as this uni- 
verfal Spirit gives Life and Motion to 
every Member and Part, and fupports 
the whole Fabrick by an over-ruling Pro- 
vidence, and a comprehenfive Spirit 3 
thus the Soul is the firft and only Princi- 
ple that actuates, governs, and moves the 
Microcofm, the Body, and every Senfe 
and Member, being in the whole, and en- 
tire in every Part. In the Godhead there 
is a Unity that admits of no Diviiion^ 
an Omnipotent Spirit, not fubjed to the 
Infirmities of Separation or Partition. 
And is not the Soul or Spirit of Man in 
this Excellency, the Reprefentation of 
his Heavenly Maker ? It" is a Unity not 
to be divided nor cut in parts ^ it difco* 
vers it ielf in the whole Body, and by its 
Operations in every Member produceth 
differing Ads according to the Diverfity 
of the Organs. In the Godhead we arc 


Tfe Art of Memory . ^ 

inforinjed by the Sacred Pen-men, that 
there is a Trinity of Perfons, the Father^ 
•the Son^ and the Holy. Ghofl : Likewiie 
in. the Soul of Man we fi\i/i three remark- 
abie and dillinct Faculties, the Under- 
ilanding, the Will, and' the Memory \ 
which tho they b^ three Abilities or 
Powers, are but one Soul or Spirit. 
Of this Refemblance between God and 
the Soul, Seneca feems to be fenfible, 
when he inquires, Epill. 52. ^id alhtd 
njoces Animum,, nifi Dmm 'in humano corm-e 
hofpitem ? And St. Juftin^ in his Treat ife 
of the Trinity, exprefly connrms th^^ 
Truth of this great Myilery, by this Pa- 
rallel with the Soul of Maii. Man there- 
fore being the living Image of his Crea- 
tor, participates in fome meafure of the 
Excellency of that Eternal Being : Who 
in all his Proceedings in relation to this 
Creature^ exprelTeth a high Eftisem of 
him, and of his Immortal Spirit. For 
him he feems to have raifed, beautified 
^and adorned this great Fabrick of the 
World, putting all things ix\ Subjedioa 
tinder his Feet^ and made him as it were 
^ vifible God, to govern,^ difpofeof, and 
Command all the Creatures that inhabit ' 
the four Elements. For him he hath 
B % kind" 

.4 The Art of Memory. 

kindled ^o tiiany Glorious Lights in the 
Firmament above, fending down from 
thence the continual Expreifions of his 
Kindnefs and Goodnefs to Man. For him 
the World is irmintain'd, and the Omni- 
potent Hand of Divine Providence fup- 
ports and continues all things entire, for 
the Completion of that appointed Num- 
ber of Mankmd defign'd for Happinefs, 
from the Beginning, by the Divine Wif- 

And lince Man hath wilfully forfaken 
his Maker, and join'd himfelf in Rebellion 
with the Apoilate Spirits, God's Mercy 
hath not totally rejeded him, nor de- 
barred him from a Return ; but on the 
contrary he invites him back to himfelf, 
with the greatefl and moll endearing Ex- 
preflions of Love, Kindnefs and Efteem. 
The Divine Mercy values the Souls of 
Men at fo high a rate, that it hath given 
an infinite Price to redeem them *, and 
employs the Agency of an Omnipotent 
Spirit to fanftify and prepare them for 
the noble Purpofes for which they are 
defign'd. If the Souls of Men had not 
been fall of E>:cellency, and of a great 
Value, would the Eternal Wifdom fuller 
the Son of God to forfake his Glory, and 


The Jrt of Memory] j 

Hoop fo tow to fetch them out of the 
Depths of Everlafting Mifery? Would 
he have joined hirafelf to this Being, and 
took upon him our Human Nature ? 
Would he have thought no Pains nor 
Suffering too great to purchafe Ehem to 
himfelf? Would he have opened for 
them the Treafuries of Immortality to 
enrich them, and commifllonM his Holy 
Spirit to poliih and purify them from 
the Remains of Corruption ? Would the 
Glories of the Heavenly Manfions be pre- 
paring to receive thefe Souls, and the 
BlefTed Spirits Above attend to conduct 
us in our PafFage thither, were there no- 
thing in us worthy of fo great Love, 
Care, Expence and Labour ? It plainly 
appears therefore, by the adings of Di- 
vine Wifdom, and the proceedings of 
the Spiritual Beings, who in reafon ought 
to be well acquainted with the real value 
of the Spirit of Man, that it is of a Di- 
vine Excellency, and far more worth 
than the whole World *, feeing they have 
no fuch regard for any created Being be- 
iides, as for this vifible Governour of the 

If therefore Man's Soul is a Jewel of 

fuch extraordinary Worth, if God and 

B 3 the 

6 The Jrt of Meworj. 

the Siipcriour Beings have for it fo great 
an Efbeem ^ certainly Man fhould have 
no lefs for this better part of himfelf. 
However, it is a Madnefs to proflitutq 
the Intercil of the iroblell Fart to thq. 
Lnfts, Follies, arid Corruption of the 
vileil", and prefer the deceitful momen- 
tary and counterfeit Satisfactions of the 
"Eody to the real and evei lailing Advan- 
tages of the Soul : A Weaknefs not excu- 
fable in a Pvational Being. 

And if the Abufe of fo Divine a Part of 
our felves be Criminal, the Negled is 
Hainoiis. Remember, OMan, that this 
Ej'ch and Spiritual Jewel is by the Divine 
Wifdom committed to thy Care, and 
recommended to thy Endeavours to be 
polifiied and fitted for the adorning the 
Hzs^Y^nly Sanduary above. As there 
are divers Imperfeclions that belong to 
it in the prefent State, which render it 
inculpable of fo high an Advancement, 
and which mufl: of necefilty be iiril remo- 
ved by our Religious Practices^ fo there 
are feveral Ornaments, Excellencies, and 
Improvements requifite before it can ex- 
pedr fo great an Honour. It is not polli- 
ble to leap from oar. vile and mean Con- 
dition of Sin and Corruption, to the En- 

The Art of Memory. y 

Joyment of the Prefence of a Holy God, 
without a due Preparation- or in a mo- 
ment of Time. We are to draw near 
by degrees, and labour to attain to thofe 
Endowments of the Mind that may pre- 
difpofe and recommend our Souls for th6 
Heavenly State. 

There is nothing created in a conditi- 
on of an abfolute Perfection, but in a pof- 
fibility to be advanced higher, to be en- 
creafed, enlarged, and enriched with 
greater Perfections. Chiefly the Intelli- 
gent Beings, who have Abilities and 
Faculties granted to them for that very 
purpofe by our wife Creator, it is cer- 
tainly their duty to anfwer this end of 
their Creation, to ftudy the Improvement 
of their Natures, and labour in this Life 
to draw nearer to Perfedion ; which tlio 
it be not attainable till we be admitted to 
the Vifion of our God, neverthelefs it is 
both our Duty and Interell to approach 
as near as we can to that BlefTed State^ 
and prepare the Abilities of our Souls for 
that Glorious End. 

And tho all Gifts, Graces and Im- 
provements of our Nature proceed from 
God, as the Apoftie affirms, that is, from 
the AiTiItanceof his Holy Spirit andDi- 
B 4 vine 


8 The Art of Memory] 

viflie Bounty, from the Concurrence of 
his over-ruling Providence and apparent 
Benedi(ftion, from the fecret Adings^ of 
his Grace and Wifdom, that influences 
our Wills and Endeavours^ yet we are 
jiot to be fluggilh and idle. But as 
we dome into the^World with adive Abi- 
lities, we are in all reafon obliged to em- 
ploy them, and make them inftrumental 
in procuring our own Good. Nay, we 
are to feek and endeavour this Improve- 
ment, and not wholly to depend on the 
favourable Will and Bleflings of our 

But of all Improvements thofe of the 
Spiritual part of Man are chiefly to be 
minded, becaufe our prefent and future 
Happinefs will thereupon depend, be- 
caufe fuch Improvement;? are not fubjed 
to the Gafualties of the Body, nor cannot 
, cailly be taken from us by V4olence or 
Death *, but as this excellent Being is 
Immortal, all the Ornaments and Per- 
fedions acquired to it do accompany it 
intoanother State, and are not change- 
able without our \A/ills and contrary En- 
deavours. How foon are the Excellen- 
cies of the Body deflroyed, and all the 
Gifts of God and Nature humbled in the 

- Duft, 

The Art of Memory. p 

Dull, together with all our Labours to 
imbellilh and adorn this outward part of 
our Selves, made the Sport and Food of 
the vileft Worms? But the precious 
Souls of Men, with the Graces andVer- 
tues that enrich them, are not fo quickly 
fpoiled; they are to continue with that 
Heavenly Subftance, and to abide with it 
for ever. Death, the great Deflroyer of 
God's Works, can't feparate thofe Perfe- 
dions from the Souls, with which God's 
Bleffings and our Endeavours have en- 
rich'd them. 

For this Noble Part as well as the 
Body is capable of great Improvement, 
The latter grows and encreafes by de- 
grees, in the ufe of the ordinary Methods 
appointed by God in Nature. Thus the 
Soul with every Faculty is to be enlarged^ 
increafed, and advanced to Perfedion, by 
the means prefcribed to us by the Divine 
Wifdom. The Underftanding is to be 
enriched with an increafe of Prudence, 
Wifdom and Knowledg *, the Will of 
Man with the Habits of Moral and Chri- 
ilian Vertues. Thus ought the other 
Faculty of the Soul, Galled the Memory, 
to be enlarged, increafed and imbelliflied. 
To this purpofe St. Bernard hath an ex- 

1 o The Art of Memory. 

leellent Saying, Dllatari oprtet animam^ 
ut fiat habitatio Dei. Sup. Cant. Serm. 28. 
For that intent our wife Creator hath 
appointed in his Church rlie ufe of his 
Word and Ordinances, hath ordered his 
iflfpired Prophets and Apoilies to deliver' 
to us the Sacred Myileries of our Religi- 
on, and the moft Heavenly Diredions, 
that we may grow in Grace ^ and in the know^ 
ledg of our Lord and Saviour J^'fn^ Chrifi^ 
% Pet. 3/ 18. And for the fame purpofe 
our good God hath opened to us the 
Books of Isfature and Providence, that 
wc might continually read, ftudy and 
underlland the Secrets of his Divine Wif- 
dom, and draw nearer to the Perfedions 
of the Mind ^ unto which we ihall never 
attain till we are admitted to the Villon 
of God. 

Now this precious Jewel is by thePhi- 
Jofophers defined, Forma fuhftantiaUs cor- 
prk viventis^ per quam vivimiis^ fentimus^ 
nutrimur^ intelligimivs^ ^ loco movemur ; 
The fiibflantial Form of our living Body, 
by which we live, are fenfible, nourifhed, 
iinderiland, and move from place to 
place. Arificitk tells us, it is br^Kix^cM 
of tl>e living organized Body. 'Tis al- 
together Spiritual, and proceeds from 


The Art of Memory. 1 1 

the immediate Agency of our wife God, 
Creator and Preferver of all things, who 
at the time of Conception and Formatioa 
of the Body, when the Parts and Organs 
are duly prepared, and fitted to receive 
this Heavenly Gueil, creates it without 
any Concurrence or AfliiUnce of the Pa- 
rents. Witnefs the Words oi the Ecclefi^ 
aftes^ chap, 1 2. ^uerf. 7. That at the DifTp- 
lution, the Spirit JhaU return unto God who 
gave it. 

And it is obfervable in this Excellent, 
and Spiritual Being here are divers Facul- 
ties, which are either natural, vital or 
animal, by which the Soul in conjundioa 
with the Body produces divers Fundions 
and Adions of Life. The Natural Fa- 
culty is that Power of the Soul by which 
the Body, affilled by the natural Heat and 
Food, is nourilhed, grows, and produces 
ads of Generation. The Vital Faculty 
is that by which the Vital Spirits are en^ 
gendered in the Heart, and Life is pre- 
served in the whole Body. The Animal 
Faculty is likewife that Power of the 
Soul by which a Man is fenfible, moves, 
and performs the principal Fundions, 
which are Imagination, Reafon and 
Memory *, which indeed are the chief Fun- 
dions of the reafonable Soul. V\^e 

1 1 The Art of Memoryl 

We mull here take notice of a conli- 
derable difference between A-^^ anima^ 
and irv9AJ jLut fpiritus. Indeed the Divine 
Oracles make ufe of both Words to ex- 
prefs the fame Spiritual Being •, as in 
Mcitth. lo. 28. m (po^^^-n o67ro r^^' 

^mjuJvQv a7rDKfS'/(Xf. 4)ojiMS?T? 3 l^^ov 
nr hfvocjuiivov itj '^^v Kf rmJu/K ocTUjKioTX.i 
\v y^iwYi, Fear not them which hill the Body^ . 
but are not able to kill the Soul : hut rather 
fear him which vs able to deftroy both Soul and 
Body in Hell, This fame Soul is named 
the Spirit, in the laft Prayer of the 
Proto-Martyr, -/^(75 7.59. Ku^ie 'incP, Si- 
|ai TO TT'.'eufx^ lijuox). Lord Jefus^ receive 
my Spirit. Therefore the Soul and the 
Spirit in the Scripture-Language, figni- 
fics that fame Spiritual Being that en- 
livens, moves, and governs this dull Mafs 
of the Body, which cannot be deftroyed 
by the Malice of Men, and which at the 
Separation is received into an Efbate of 
Blifs, by our great Saviour, and the Holy 
Angels his miniflring Spirits. Yet if we 
examine fome other Paflages of Holy 
Writ, we fnall meet with a Diflin- 
dion not EiTential but Accidental. In 

I Tbef 

T?;e Art of Memory. i j 

I Thejf, 5. 23. St. Paul defires ^^^^ tk/r 
whole Spirit J and Soul^ and Body beprefernjed 
blamelefs unto the appearance of our Lord 
Jefus Chrifi. And the Author to the He- 
brews^ Ghap. 4. V, 1 2. declares. That the 
Word of God is /harper than any two-edged 
Sword^ piercing even to the dividing afunder 
of Soul and Spirit. 

Interpreters differ fomething in the 
Expolition of thefe two PalTages. Mr. Cal- 
njin underftands by the Soul the Will and 
its AfFedions, and by the Spirit the Un- 
derilanding and all its Gifts : which In- 
terpretation feems to be weak, and not 
anfwering the Scope of the Words. O- 
thers, and amongfl the Antient Fathers 
not a few, tell us, by the Soul is meant the 
Senfual and Animal Part of Man, and by 
the Spirit the mor% refined and more fub- 
lime Part, the Intellect and its Perfecti- 
ons. This Interpretation, in my Judg- 
ment, draws nearefl to the meaning of 
the Apoftle : but we mult take heed of 
a grofs Error, contrary to all Reafon and 
Philofophy, of fome of them, who make 
Man to be compofed of three Parts, Bo- 
dy, Soul and Spirit, and multiply Beings 
without Neceffity. The Spirit given by 
God to enliven, move, and govcVn this 


1 4 T^he Art of Memory. 

Body, is but one, and hath all the Abili- 
ties granted to it which they afcribe 
to two diftin(3: Subflanees ^ it hath the 
Power to govern the Senfes as it is united 
to the Body ^ and as it withdraws itfelf 
from the Senfes, it performs ail Spiritual 
Operations : Therefore this Glofs which 
is defigned by them to folve the difficult 
Queftion about th^ Defcentof Chrill in- 
to Hell, in my Opinion is not Orthodox, 
nor agreeing with the Principles of Rea- 
fon and Nature. 

So that in thefe two Paffages to iT\^yj}x^x 
and V) 4o'_>*^ differ in feme refped, but 
it is only in the Original Signification of 
the Words, and in the Relation that the 
Spirit of Man hath to the Body, and the 
Animal Faculties and Operations. As it 
Is a Spiritual Being feparate from the Bo- 
dy, and enjoys a Subfiltence independent 
from this outward Tabernacle, it is na- 
med TO 7rveU((x^, the Spirit of Man, cre- 
ated by the immediate Hand of God at 
that moment that it is put to inform and 
enliven the Organized Body, which takes 
its immediate Beginning from other Prin- 
ciples. This Spirit at the DilTolution of 
the Body is immortal, and returns to 
God that made it, and cannot be de- 


The Art of Memory. i j 

ftroyed by Death. It enters into ano- 
ther State, and hath the freedom of its 
Faculties and Operations, as the Holy 
Angels above. It is deliverM from the 
Pains and Slavery of the Body, and from 
its Concernment with this vile Part of 
Man. It enters into a new Acquaintance, 
and into a Converfation with Beings an- 
fwerable to it felf. In this blefled State, 
ftiied in Holy Writ, Ihe Joy of our 
Lord J The Paradife of God^ JPulnefs of Joy^ 
God's Frefence^ &c. the Soul or Spirit re- 
tains all its Perfedtions, Graces and Abi- 
lities ', and being delivered or let loofe 
from the Body that clogs it, from the 
Members and Organs decay'd by Sicknefs 
or old Age, it thereby arrives to a more 
excellent Adivity than it was formerly 
capable of, when confined to the Limits 
and Bondage of the Senfes. It is not fo 
much ftraitned in its Operations as whea 
it was One in Society v^ith the weak and 
infirm Body ^ but every Faculty bath the 
greater liberty to manifefl that Improve- 
ment that hath been made in them by 
our former Diligence, laduilry and La- 

But while this Spirit continues in Con- 
jundion with the Body, and operates by 

i6 The Art of Memory] 

the Senfes and Organs, it is properly 
named 4^;j^, Jnlma^ or the Soul, and 
in the Hebrew Tongue tl/Oi a word de- 
rived from the Verb ^^^}. he breathed, 
becaufe its prefent Being and Subfiitence 
relates to the Anitpal Fundions main- 
tained and continued by our conflant 
breathing. Bur^ tho molt part of the 
A(9:ions of this Spiritual Being are pro- 
duced in and by the Organs of the Body, 
there are at prefent many Operations of 
the Soul that have no relation to the 
Senfes, efpecially in fuch as are fanctified 
by the Spirit of God, and are deligned 
for a better and higher State : There- 
fore in the former PafTage to the TheJJa- 
Jonians^ St. Paul prays that God would 
fandify their Spirits from the Corruption 
convey'd to them by the vicious Inclina- 
tions of the Body, and that this immor- 
tal Part might be prefer ved pure and 
undefiled frOm all Sin and Infection: 
That the Soul likewife, that is, the fame 
Spirit as it works and ads by the Animal 
. Senfes of the Body, and in conjundion 
with this outward Part, might be alfo 
free from Sin and Pollution : And that 
the Body alfo with all its Members might 
be fandified, and preferved blamelefs un- 

7he Art of Memory^ 1 7 

to the Appearance of Chrift. Likewife 
the Author to the Hebrews tells us, that 
the Word of God is fo fliarp as to divide 
between the Spirit and the Soul ; that is, 
that it is fo exad in its Commands and 
Injundions in relation to Piety and Holi- 
nefs, as to lay an Obligation to be circum- 
fped upon the Spiritual Being of Man 
in the Adions that are produced in coii- 
jundion with the Body, and in the Ope- 
rations that are feparate from the Senfes, 
and that it cenfures both the Spiritual 
and the Seniltive Part of Man. 

But by this near Conjundion of the 
Soul and Body, it happens that the Ha- 
bits of the former are more or lefs per- 
fed, and the Adions more or lefs ex- 
cellent according to the good or vicious 
Difpofition of the latter. So that an Im- 
pediment or a Weaknefs in the Organ 
may hinder the Soul from ading. But 
fuch Impediments, if they proceed not 
from a natural Deficiency in the princi- 
pal Part, may in fome cafes be removed 
by an alRdual Labour, a refolute Induflry^ 
a long llfage, and the Bleffing of the 
God of Nature. As in the Example of 
a famous Orator, who wore away the 
ftammering of his Tongue with Peble 
Q Stouts, 

rS The At of Memory] 

$tones, and attainted to a Facility 6f 
Speech and Memory by fpeaking often to 
the roaring Waves of the Sea. 

Indeed we ar€ the more indebted to 
our wile Maker, when he gives an ex- 
cellent Soul in a well-difpofed and well-- 
organized Body, and that the Teniper 
of the one alKfes the Operations of th€ 


©f Mcmoryy its Seat^ and Excel- 

ST'.yiufi'm names Memory the Sou Fs 
Belly or Store-houfe, or the Receptacle 
of the Mind, becaufe it is appointed to 
receive and lay up as in a Treafury thofe 
things that may be for our Benefit and 
Advantage. Divers Names and De- 
fcriptions are given to it, but all may be 
reduced to this one Definition, That it is 
that Faculty of the Soul appointed by 
our wife Creator to receive, retain and 
preferve the feverai Ideas conveyed into 


The Art of Memory'^ ip 

it by the Inlets of the Underftanding, 
whedier intelledual or fenfitive. 

Two Vertues belong to it^ readily to 
receive, and long to retain whatfoever 
is committed to its Cnllody by the lln- 
derHanding : For Perfedion of Memory 
confiils in thefe two Qualities, quickly 
to receive the Impreflions or Images of 
things, and to keep them long from Ob- 
livion, that the Intelled might there find 
them to employ them for fuch Ufesas 
Reafbn may require. There are like wife 
three differing Ads of this Faculty, tho> 
fome reckon but two •, ift^ That which 
we properly call Memory, which is a Re- 
tention of the Ideas of things admitted 
into the Soul, idly^ Recordation Remem- 
brance, or a calling to Mind, or a refrelh- 
ing thbfe Ideas that are there clofeted 
tip. 3<f/y, ^^wm/Jcewfi^^ which is a Reco* 
very of the fame Ideas which were for- 
merly loft, or a renewing of thofe Im- 
prefRons in the Memory that were blot- 
ted out, or defaced by Forgetfulnefs, 
The firft may be found in fome raeafure 
in the Brutes, and other Animals, who 
have a kind of local Retention of the 
Objeds that are either grateful or hurt- 
ful to their Natures •, fo that the prefence 

• C 2 of 

20 7he Art of Memory. 

of thofe things caufc them either to fly 
from, or to run to them, having had a 
former Scnfe of thdr good or evil Qua- 
lities. This Arjimal Memory differs in 
this from that of Man, in that it requires 
the prefcnce of the Objeds to mind the 
dumb Creatures of their pad Experience ^ 
but the Soul of Man having more perfect 
and excellent AiUftances, needs not the 
Reprcfentation of Things to remember 
the former Paflagcs j neither is his Me- 
mory fo narrow, fo weak and infirm, as 
that of the Brutes< But the two latter 
Afts of Memory are not to be found in 
them, becaufe they depend on therea- 
foning of the llnderftanding, and cannot 
be produced without that Ability, which 
wc cannot admit in other Animals. 

And thothcfe two Ads, which fome 
reckon to be but one, be produced by the 
fame Faculty as the Ads of Memory, yet 
they differ in this, that the Memory may 
be without the ufe of reafoning, but the 
others require the Alliilancc of the Rati- 
onal Faculty to recover the lofl Ideas, by 
the help of certain Circumllanccs that 
rcnain yet in our Mind. Befides, it's very 
common, that fome who are excellent 
for Alemory, may be the more apt to be 


The Jrt of Memory. 1 1 

guilty of Forgctfulncfs, and to let flip 
out of their Thoughts many weighty 
Matters. Again, Memory precedes Re- 
membrance in relation to Time, for we 
can't call to mind Things that we ne- 
ver had in our Memory before. And I 
judg there is this difference between Re- 
cordatto2iX\A Reminifccntia^ that tlic firlt 
is a plain Remembrance of Things re- 
maining yet in the Alemory, but not 
thought upon before, by reafon of the 
multiplicity and crowd of other Ideas ^ 
whereas Reminifccntia is a recovery of the 
loft Ideas which were blotted out of the 
Memory, and again refrefhed and renew- 
ed by the alTiftance of fome known Cir- 
cumftances and Paflages, that lead us to 
the minding again of thofe Things that 
we had forgotten : however we muft ac- 
knowledg between them the difference of 
magis & wim^.Now there are four natural 
Motions obfervable in Memory ^ Firft^ 
the Motion of the Spirits, which convey 
the Species or Ideas from the thinking 
Faculty to that of Memory. Secondly, 
the Formation or Reception of thofe 
Ideas, and the' fixing or imprinting 
them into the Fancy. Thirdly, a retur- 
ning back of thofe Spirits from the me- 
G 3 morativc 

22 The Art of Memorjl 

inorative Faculty to the rational. Fourth- 
ly, that A(ition by which the thinking 
Faculty reviews what is treafured up in 
Memory, which indeed is the very Aft 
of Memory. Therefore fome have de- 
nned Memory, ^pprehenfio in jinimaeX" 
iftentium fpeckmm cum inddgatiGne & m- 
quifitione ^ An Appreheniion of the Mind 
of thofe Ideas that are in the Soul, ac- 
companied 6y a Search and Inquifition. 

We muil here make one Obfervation 
more ^ That as the Peri^atetichs commonly 
diftinguifti three diftinft Things in every 
Faculty, fo we mult note the fame in that 
of Memory. Firfl, there is the Faculty, 
Power or Ability of Memory, which we 
fancy to reiide in the Soul as in its proper 
Subjeft, and to produce Ads by that Or- 
gan appointed by our wife Maker, name- 
ly the Cerebellum, Secondly, to this Abi- 
lity or Faculty belongs the Habit of Me- 
mory, which is acquired by repeated 
AdcSj for there may be a Faculty in the 
Soul, which through Negleft or otherwife 
may be ufelefs, and it often happens that 
the Faculty is perfefted ]py a conilant and 
continual Pra<^ice and Habit, whereas 
Slothfulnefs decays and mines the moft 
excellent Ability. The third Thing 


The Art of Memory^* 2 1 

ol^fervabie in Memory,is the feveral Ads 
produced by the Factity, v/hich at lait 
fttake up an Habir, We fball find this 
Diilindion to be of fome ijfe in the fol- 
lowing Chapters. 

Now the Seat of Memory is generally 
acknowledged to be in the hinder part of 
the Head, which we call Occ'tpt^ in the 
third Clofet, named Ventrkulusy Puppvs^ or 
Cerebellum, For as all the Naturaliiis are 
of opinion, that in the Brain there ar^ 
three Operations of the Soul, the Imagi- 
nation, Reafon, and Memory ^ they 
ftatve from the Diredion of Experience^ 
affigned to the two firft the two greater 
Clofets of the Brain, and to the latter 
the iefs and hindcnnolb. For I need not 
btify my feif to prove that all the Functi- 
ons of Life have their particular Organs ; 
and the Soul adting little or nothing 
without the concurrence and afTiilance of 
the Body, our wife Creator hath ap- 
pointed the feveral diflind parts where 
the Spirit is to move and aft, to produce 
the differing Anions of Life ^ according 
to that old and approved Saying of the 
Cor fapity& pulmo loquitur^ fel fufcitar h'a5j 
Splen rider e fetch ^ cogit amare jeciir ; 
' C 4 Thq 

i4 Tk Art of Memory: 

The Heart is the Seat of Wifdom, 
the Lights are employed in Speaking^ 
the Gaul moves us to Anger, the Spleen 
inclines to Laughter, and the Liver to 
an Amorous Temper. Thus in this Clo- 
fet of Memory th^ Soul treafures up the 
Ideas of Things, making ufe of a clear 
and fubtile Spirit, afcending from the 
Heart, to form the Imprefiions, which 
contain either a longer or ihorter fpace, 
anfwerable to the Temperature of the 
Body, and the Largenefs of this Clofet : 
For they have obferved, that fuch have a 
capacious Memory whofe hinder-part of 
the Head is larger than ordinary ^ but 
when that part is otherwife, plain, and 
narrow, fuch Perfons are feldom gifted 
v/ith a rich and an officious Memory. It 
is molt certain that the good or evil Dif- 
pofition of the hindermoft part of the 
Head contributes much either to the 
largenefs or fliallownefs of Memory. 
For when that part of the Brain is found, 
and the PalTage open and wide, by wiiich 
the Spirits afcend up to it-with Eafe, and 
without any Obftrudion, fuch Men are 
quick of A pprehenfion, and their Memo- 
ry is the more happy, and the more fuf- 
Ceptible of the Ideas. But if the way be 


The At of Memory. i j 

bbftruded that conveys up the Spirits, 
or if there be any natural or cafual Dc- 
fed in that part, they will quickly find it 
by the decay of Memory. Some having 
received a confiderable Blow in that fide 
of the Head, as a Greek Author relates, 
forgot all their neareft Relations. And 
it is reported of Mejfala Corvinus the 
Orator, that by an Accident he became 
fo ftupified as to forget his own Name. 
The Cafualties therefore that may hap- 
pen to this excellent Faculty, by the Pre- 
judices to which this part of the Brain 
is fubjed, fhould awaken our Care and 
Diligence to preferve aud defend it. 

But as the Parts of the Body, and the 
Soundnefs and Perfedion of the Brain, 
are great Helps to a good Memory *, they 
have caufed the Naturalifls to divide 
Memory into Natural and Artificial. 
The Natural is when the Perfon hath this 
great Advantage from his Natural Parts, 
without any help from his own Induflry, 
and when his wife Maker hath bellowed 
upon him all the inward Qualifications 
needful for a large and happy Memory. 
The Artificial is that which is acquired 
by our Care, Study, Invention and La- 
bour, For it is the Opinion of Cicero^ 


%6 The Art of 'Memory] 

That the gocxinefs of oar Memory pro- 
ceeds not always from oor Natural Per- 
fedions, but fometimes from the Contri- 
vance and Ah of Man^ And our Expe- 
rience can verify the fame, that Memory 
is capable of incfeafe and decreafe ; and 
that the Art of Man mayaddmuch^ and 
accomplifh this excellent Ability. How- 
ever, if we offer to negledt^ and fuffer 
this rare Faculty to be unpolifh*d and co- 
vered over, as it were, with the Rubbilh 
of Idlenefs and Debauchery, when God 
and Mature have been bountiful to us in 
this refped, we cannot e^pedt to ufe it 
with that Advantage, as others who have 
laboured to increafe their Maker's Gifts 
by their Study and Induftry. Of fome 
it hath been reported, that they had 
prodigious Memories, Mithndates^ that 
famous Enemy of the Roman State, was 
once a King of two and twenty King- 
doms, where ^o many differing Langua- 
ges were fpoken \ which he underftocd 
fo well, that he could fpeak every one of 
them, and to all his Subjeds, without an 
Interpreter. The Great Cyrus had fa 
iargc a Memory, that he could call every 
Souldier of his numerous Army by his 
proper Name. Likcwife Scneoa tells us 
'^ . of 

7 he Art of Memoryl 1^ 

of himfelf, that he could repeat loao 
<difl:in(ft Names that had no dependance. 
And in our late Days, the Cardinat 
du Perron was able to repeat, without 
miffing a Word, two hundred Verfes 
which were fpoken before Henry the 
Fourth by a famous Poet, and never 
heard nor faw them before. Likewife 
in our Age and Nation, fome carry with 
them whole Libraries in their Mejtnory : 
Which in reafon cannot be expeded, nrt- 
lefs Men endeavour to improve this rare 
Gift of God by a continued Exercife. I 
need not inlarge upon the Ufefulnefs and 
Exxellency of Memory, to incline Men to 
the practice of the Means to attain to it. 
All other Abilities of the Mind borrow 
from hence their Beauty, Ornaments, 
and Perfections, as from a common Trea- 
fui-y : And the other Capacities and Fa- 
culties of the Soul are ufelefs without this. 
For to what purpofe is Knowledg and 
"Underilanding, if we want Memory m 
preferve and ufe it ? What fignify all 
other Spiritual Gifts, if they are loft as 
foon as they are obtained ? It is Memory 
alone that enriches the Mind, that pre- 
ferves what Labour and Induilry colled:, 
which fuppl'y this Noble and Heavenly 


^8 The Art of Memory. 

Being with thofe Divine Excellencies, by 
which it is prepared for a Glorious Im- 
mortality. In a word, there can be nei- 
ther Knowledg, neither Arts nor Sci- 
ences, without Memory : Nor can there 
be any improvement of M^ankind, either 
in refped of the prefent Welfare, or fu- 
ture Happinefs, without the Afliftance 
and Influence of this Supernatural Abili- 
ty. Memory is the Mother of Wifdom, 
the common Nurfe of Knowledg and 
Vertue, as the Poet very well hath 

Sophiam fiu vacant Grcecf^vos fapientiam, 
Vjm me genuit^ mater peperit memoria. 

Bot as thefe Lines are deligned for the 
Benefit and Encouragement of their Me- 
mories chieQy who are to appear in the 
Pulpit, or at the Bar, to fpeak in the 
Audience of the People^ I need not tell 
them with St. u4u[i:m^ Memoria in frimis 
oratori neceffaria^ That there is no Ability 
more ttfeful to an Orator than Memory : 
For it gives Life to what isfpoken, and 
makes a deeper I m predion in the Minds 
of Men *, it awakens the dulleil Spirits, 
andcaufeth them to receive a Ditcourfe 


The Art of Memory . 29 

more kindly than otherwife; it adds a 
Grace, and an extraordinary Excellency, 
both to the Perfon and his Oration, and 
is the greateft Ornament of that part of 
Rhetorick that we commonly name Pro- 
nunciatio. So that if there is any thing 
wdrthy to be efteemed or valued in that 
Art, foufefulina Common-wealthy 'tis 
all borrowed from Memory alone j which 
gives the greateft weight and efficacy to 
the Words that are fpoken. It is repor- 
ted of Efchines^ that when he came to 
Rhodes^ he read to the Inhabitants a fa- 
mous Oration oi Demoftbenes^ which they 
very much admired, tho pronounced 
without the Grace of an Orator: But 
faid he to them, Quidjii^fum audijfetk? 
How much more would you admire and 
efteem this Oration, if you had beard it 
from his own Mouth ? But our daily Ex- 
perience can declare more of the Exeeir 
lency of this rare Ability . 

I Ihall therefore proceed to examine 
what Temper is moft agreeable with a 
good Memory. 


^ o Tk Jrt of Memory] 

C H A P. ilL 

The Temper or Difpofitkn of the 
B&dy hefl and morftfor JMemory^ 
with tk Natural Caujes and ^ea- 
jhm of b(^hk 

M Emory is named, or rather defer!- 
bed, by Plato^ that great and fa- 
mous Philofopher of his Age, the Sound- 
nefs of the Senfes, becaufe the Soul ma- 
king ufe of the Senfes of the Body to 
receive the Impreflions of Things, the 
Memory is either larger or narrower, 
greater or lefs, according to the good 
or ill Qualities of the Senfes, and the 
ideas are more or lefs lafting in Man. 
However, 'tis moft certain that in gene- 
ral it is requifite for a good Memory, 
that the Body be in a perfect Health ; for 
if either the whole be diftemper'd, or 
any part be difeafed, the Sufferings are 
communicated to every Member, and 


The Art of Memofyl ^ t 

all are fenfible in fome refped of the Pain 
with the difafFeded Part ^and the Difeafe, 
whatever it be, diforders the Fundions 
more or lefs, according to the nearnefs 
of Cqmmunicatioji. Some Difeafes have 
that evil Influence that they totally de- 
prive us of our Memory for a time, as 
thofe that feize upon the Head and Brain, 
and fuch as diftemper the Nerves and 
Veins that are uppermoft, and corrupt 
the Blood and Spirits which are ufed for 
the Exercife of Memory. Befides, when 
ajjy part of the Body is difeafed, the Mind 
isdiftraded, and cannot fo readily per- 
form that Office, as when it enjoys a per- 
fed Tranquillity free from the Avocati- 
ons of Maladies and Pain. Likewife,if the 
Spirit be diilurbed by the violent Pafli-* 
ons of Anger, Fear, Defpair, drc. the 
Exercife of Memory can never be fo free, 
becaufe it requires a fedate and quiet 
Tem^per of Mind as well as a Soundnefs 
in tifie Body. All the Alarms and 
Troubles of the Soul blot out the Ideas 
that are already entertained, and hinder 
others from coming in. They obftrud 
all the Pafiages ^ and the Crowd of 
Thoughts that in fuch Cafes arife is a 
great hindrance to Memory. 


^ z The Art of Memory, 

But the Learned obferve, that two 
Tempers of the Body or Brain are Ene- 
mies to a good Memory, and that fuch 
can never exped any great Advantage 
from this Ability that in thofe cafes is 
naturally dillnabled. The firit is a Tem- 
per extraordinary Gold, for thereby the 
neceffary Motions are ftopt, and the PafTa- 
ges for a fpeedy Conveyance frozen, and 
the Imagination as it were benumm'd. 
So that as a convenient Heat of the Body 
is a notable Help to an aftive Memory, a 
cold Temper can never be fo quick in 
Apprehenfion, nor receive the Imprefli- 
ons that are offered. Therefore a noted 
Phyfician names Cold the Mother of For- 
getfulnefs, and declares that there can 
be nothing more pernicious to Memory, 
either to the admittance of the Ideas, 
or to the making ufe of them, than an 
inward or a too violent and ambient 

The fecond Temper unfit for Memory 
is Moifb, when a too great Humidity 
feizes upon the Brain, as in Drunkennefs, 
Intemperance, and Defluxions ^ Memo- 
ry in fuch a cafe may quickly receive an 
ImpreiTion, but it will as fpeedily lofe it : 
As a Ship at Sea running fwifdy through 


7he Art of Memory] 35 

the Waves, leaves behind a Track, which 
is almoll alToon loll as made, fo that no 
iign can be found of its Paflage through 
that fluid Element. So the Moifture of 
the Brain may be fufceptible of au Idea 
for the prefent, but 'tis not lalting, nor 
is there any fign a little after of any 
fuch matter. Thofe Perfons may re- 
member the things near at hand, but they 
feldom call to mind that which hath been 
long ago done. 

I might add a third Temper very much 
unfit ror Memory, that is, an extraor- 
dinary dry Brain, or a corrupt Difpofi- 
tion of Body, proceeding from too much 
Heat and Drinefs: for tho thefe two 
Qualities are neceflary AlTiftants of a 
good Memory, both for Reception and 
Retention, yet when they exceed the Pre- 
fcript of Nature,they mult needs be offen- 
iive to Health, and confequently to the 
Pradice of Memory. It is therefore 
needful for this purpofe that the four 
Qiialities of the Body be in an Equilibrium^ 
in an equal Ballance j becaufe this Equality 
ferves very much for a more ready For- 
mation of the Ideas, and inables the 
Organ the better to receive and retain 
them. But of the four Qualities it h 
D obfer- 

54 7??e Jrt of Memory, 

<)brerved, that Cold and Moi/l are the 
iriofl deftrudive to Memory , an excelTive 
Gold being the greatelt Enemy of Na- 
1:ure, and of its Prefervation. For Humi- 
lity, it cannot be ex'pefted that when the 
Brain is drowned in Liquor, or over- 
sows with Humours, that in fuch an In- 
undation Memory can ad and perform 
Its Duty with that Exadnefs, and in that 
Perfedion that it can at other times, and 
in a better Temper. Now 'tis not diffi- 
cult to underftand what Quality is pre- 
dominant by thefe following Experi- 
ments : Firft, by our Sleep j for if we 
are more inclinable to it than ordinary, 
it is a fign of a wet and moifb Brain, that 
makes us heavy and drowfy ; but if we 
cannot take our ufual Reft, it is an evi- 
dent Token of a dry Temper. Belides, 
this Humidity falls down into the Palate 
by an extraordinary Spittle, breaks out 
oif the corner of the Eyes, and evacuates 
it felf through the Nofe and other Con- 
veyances from the Brain, in a greater 
abundance than is ufual. But if the 
Brain be too dry, you will not be able to 
clofe your Eyes as formerly, you will find 
3 Ughtnefs in the Head, there will be ♦ 
feldom any natural Evacuations, and the 


The Art of Memory. ^ y 

Eyes will appear funk into the Head, and 
the Excrements of the Ears will encreafe. 
This is the Cafe of fuch as grow in Years^^ 
which caufeth old Age to be lefs fuf- 
ceptible of new Imprefiions in their Me- 
mory, but to be more retentive of thofe 
that are there already : So that all the 
Paflages of their youthful days they caii 
quickly call to mind. 

But if an inward Cold predominates, 
it will appear by thefe Signs : The Face 
will feem very white, the Eyes languifh- 
ing, the Veins will fcarce be feen ; a 
Cold may be felt about the Parts next td 
the Head, and a Dulnefs and Stupidity 
feizeth in fuch a cafe upon the Spirits 
and Brain ^ fo^ that by this means Men 
are rendered jefs fit for A^idn. Now 
it is obferved by Phyficians, that the 
Brain is naturally hotter in Summer than 
in Winter, unlefs it be when fomeDi- 
ftemper increafeth the internal Heat, and 
augments it the more by reafon of the 
ambient Cold. . 

If too much Heat be in the Brain,; 
it may be perceived by thefe infallible 
Signs. All the Parts about the Head 
will be hotter and more red than or- 
8ijQtary,^ the Eyes, will be rolling an(i . 

5 6 7he Art of Memory 

fiery, the Temples burnings and the Per- 
fon cannot be inclinable to fleep, becaufc 
all the Vapours that caufe Drowfinefs are 
confumed by that internal Heat, and 
dried np as foon as they enter the Glofets 
of the Brain, from what hath been 
faid it is mofl certain, that a moderate 
Temper, where all the four Qualities cor- 
refpond and agree in an Equality, is the 
molt fit for the Practice of a good Memo- 
ry J and when any of thele exceed the 
natural Proportion, both the Health and 
Memory alfo are impaired in that Body, 
and rendered more unfit for Exercife. 
In fuch cafes therefore the Phyficians Art 
may be very ufeful to reflore Health, to 
redify the Brain, to remedy the Temper, 
and remove the fuperfluous and perni- 
cious Quality, and confequently it may 
preferve, increafe, inlapge and help Me- 
mory. For as it is moll certain that di- 
vers Difeafes deftroy this Ability, or 
difinable it *, fo it is unqueflionable that 
feveral Remedies may aftift, comfort and 
corroborate this excellent-Faculty, which 
requires a good Difpofition of Body, a 
careful Government of our felves, and an 
Abllinence from the Extravagancies and 
Debaucheries of the Age. 


The Art of Memoryl ^ 7 

Now in fome Cafes 'tis impoffible to 
remedy a decay'd Memory, as when Na^- 
ture fails through fome yiolent Difeafe ; 
when an extraordinary Heat and internal 
Drinefs hath corrupted the vital Parts, 
or the Clofet of Memory, and filled it 
with infeded Spirits *, or when old Age 
brings a Diminution to our Strength, Vi- 
gor, Abilities, and all our Natural Parts 
decay with our Body. 'Tis then in vain 
to attempt by Phyfick to help or remedy 
that which is naturally loft and perilhed. 
However in fuch Cafes we may preferve 
what remains of Memory by a regular 
manner of living, and by fuch Food as 
may expel the inward Drinefs and Cold, 
and comfort the Brain with a Recruit of 
wholfome Spirits, proceeding from th^ 
Ealinefs and Qiiicknefs of Digeftioao 



g The Art of Memory. 

C H A P. IV. 

$ome General mi fhyftcal Obfir^^a^ 
' tions and frefcriptions for th? 
remedying, (Irenphnbii, and re- 
(lormr a Memory injured by the 
ill Temper of the 'Body, or the 
(predomimncy of one of the four 
Qualities in the 'Bram. 

THE Excellency of Memory, as we 
tave taken notice, depending whol- 
ly upon the Health and good Difpofition 
of the Body, 'tis not to be doubted but 
that which reftorcs Health to the one, is 
by confequence ufeful and affilbng to the 
Welfare and Operations of the other. 
Chiefly, if the Head or Brain be any ways 
damnified, incuttibred or prejudiced, fu 
Medicines as are proper to remove the ill 
Oualitics, or to reftore Soundneft, are 
aTfo proper to help Memory: Divers 
therefore are prefcribed by the raoft emi- 

The Art of Memory. j p 

nent Phyficians, anfwerabk to the feveral 
piftempers of the Brain, and the Caufes 
from whence they proceed. 

Firft \ If by reafon of extraordinary 
Loofnefs and immoderate Evacuations, or 
of any internal Drinefs, the Memory be 
prejudiced, we mufl feek a Remedy from 
a convenient Diet, which may llrengthen^ 
the Body, and comfort the Spirits and 
Senfes. In fuch a Cafe juicy Meats are 
to be ufed, and fuch as are of eafy Di- 
geftion in the Stomach ^ good and whol- 
fonie Drinks are to be taken, as Claret 
Wine, Metheglin well made, drc. We 
are lilcewife to exercife our Bodies mo- 
derately, and without being tired ; we 
ought to rub the Head and Temples foft- 
ly with Woollen Clothes, and endeavour 
to rellore the Body to its ordinary Tem- 
per by Sleep, Bathing, and other natural 
Means. But if the Brain and Memory be 
injured by reafon of an internal Cold, 
Heat muft be applied to expel it (as 
Humidity is ufed to remedy the Drinefs 
of the Temper ) but always with a con- 
venient Moderation ^ for we mult take 
heed that we heat not the Brain too 
much, nor totally dry np the internal 
Humidity, for fear of falling into a more 
D 4 dange« 

40 The Art of Memory] 

dangerous Diflempcr,which may deprive 
us both of Life and Memory together. 
When the Brain is out of order by rea- 
fon of Cold andMoifture, the Air is to be 
chofen for the Patient to live in which 
may be hot and drying : and in wet and 
cold miily Weather, the Chamber or 
Dwelling where he is, ought to be per- 
fumed with hot and odor ifetous Herbs, 
as Sage-^ Marjoram, Lavender, Rofe- 
Biary, Thyme, wild Thyme ^ and let a 
Smoak be made of fome of thefe well- 
fcented Herbs in the Chamber, together 
with Juniper, (for fuch Perfumes will dry 
tm Air, and help the Brain) chiefly of 
that Indian Amber that is named the 
Gum of the Soul. The Diet ought to 
be according to the Dillemper, of fuch 
Meats as are of an eafy Conco(5tion j and 
tho fome Phyficians forbid cold Sallets, 
I fuppofe they may be of great ufe, chief- 
ly in the Spring and Summer, to fome hot 
Stomachs, asLettice, Purflane, Spinage, 
Corn-fallet, Cichory, Endive, and Na- 
fiurtium ^ the latter being good to ftir up 
the Spirits, and a natural Remedy a- 
gainil Sloth-, from whence comes the 
old Diredion to a Sluggard, Vade iy edc 
Nufiurtmn. Likewife it is very proper 


The Art of Memoryl 41 

in many Diftempers of the Brain, to open 
a Vein, and free the fuperiour Parts front 
the over-flowings of Blood, and to give 
a gentle Purgation, either by Potions, 
Pills, or other ufual Means, according 
to the Advice of experienced Phyficians, 
and the Nature of the Diftemper. Now 
fuchDifeafes incident to the Brain are 
either in the Cavities, or the Subftance 
of the Brain j in the firft are chiefly thefe. 
Vertigo^ Catarrh^ Epkpfia^ j^poplexia^ Pal- 
j^, Convulfion^ Trembling : in the Subftance 
are thefe, Phrenzy^ Melancholy^ Madnefs^ 
Lofs or Hurt of Memory, fleepy Dif- 
eafes, &c. All which, as they bring a 
prefent Prejudice to the Faculty of Me- 
mory, fo they are to be removed and cu- 
red before it can ad with Vigor. 

But if the Difeafe proceeds from a too 
great Increafe of the Humours, fuch 
skilful Phyficians are to be confulted, and 
proper Remedies are to be applied for 
the correcting and removing of thofc 
Humours, as Bleeding, Purgations, Glif- 
ters. Vomits, IfTues, &c. 

Now 'tis moft certain that divers Oint- 
ments, Snuffs, Perfumes, Plaifters, and 
Medicines are applicable to the Head and 
Templesjfor curing feveral Diftempers of 



'^t 7he Jrt of Mmory. 
the Brain: But this being a Subjed that 
more properly concerns the Phyfician, I 
San oWdvVe the Patient to be very 
Sions in making nfe of Remedies for 
the removing of Pifeafes of the Head, 
Xh is a tinder part , and when once 
the Part or Organ is wounded, tis a ve 
'y difficult Task to cure it, and wUh- 

ont a Miracle it can never be made 


C H A P. V. 

What k Very much prejudkiaUo the 
Faculty, Habit, and 'PraBtce of 

-f-HE Memory refidinginfo tender a 

1 Part as the Brain, Nature hath had 

aVLlar care to preferve.t from d^^ 

V^ifn^ldes by a thick Skull: it inews 

?£S" hJt Efteem, Value -dTe 

to\£U it be not injured ather^by 

The Art of Memory^ 4 5 

pur own Mifcarriages, or by others En- 
deavours. Certainly we are worthy of 
blame if we ruin that molt excellent and 
moft neceHary Part of our felves, and 
run wilfully into fuch Adions as arq 
hurtful to our Brain and Memory. Now 
it is observed, and we may underlland 
it from our own Experience, that thefe 
following Particulars are prejudicial to 

1 . All Crudities, Repletion, and Indi- 
geftions of the Stomach ^ for they en- 
gender many dangerous Difeafes, difor- 
der the Brain, and fend up infedious Va- 
pours, which caufe Pains in the Head, 
Giddinefs, and feveral other Diltempers: 
confequcntly they are pernicious to Rea- 
fon and Memory, as St. Amhrofe tells us, 
Cihus immodkiis & Ammds 6* Corfori no- 
cent : An excefTfve Eating hurts both the 
Soul and Body. . 

2. Drunkennefs is ofFenfive to the 
Brain, and all its Fundions, becaufe it fills 
it fall of Humours, and naturally caufeth 
Forgetfulnefs. And as a Father expreffeth 
himfelf, Ebrietas Tempeftaseft turn in Ani- 
mo quam in Corpore^ & feipfam ignorat \ 
it is a Storm both in the Body and Soul, 
and caufeth us to forget and be unmind- 

44 ^^ ^^^ ^f y^fi^oryl 

ful of our felves. Therefore the ufe of 
ftrong Wines is dangerous, and a fre- 
quent ingorging and conftant Debau- 
chery turns Men into Sots and Beads, 
and weakens all t\\Q, Operations of the 
Brain. I cannot but mind here what 
Suetonius writes of Claudm Cafar^ that 
by Drunkennefs he had forgot what he 
had commanded but an hour before : for 
having ordered his impudent and leche- 
rous WHq and Emprefs Mejfalina^ to be 
put to Death, becaufe of her unfuffera- 
ble and publick Adulteries, when he fat 
down to eat Meat a while after, asked 
his Officers and Servants what their La- 
dy was doing, that Ihe came not as ufual- 
ly to Table with him. And the fame 
Roman Author, with others, tell us of 
ViteU'm^ who when he came to the Em- 
pire, gave himfelf over to fuch Debau- 
chery and Drunkennefs, that he loft and 
drowned all his Memory and Reafon. 

3. A violent and outward Gold in the 
Night-feafon offends the Brain, if the 
Head be not well covered. Therefore 
for the better Prefervation of the Seat 
of Memory, it is convenient to keep our 
Heads warm, according to this French 
pireftion, Cardez^xhaux ks fieds & La 


Tl^e Art of Memoryl 4 5 

tefte^ audemeuront vivez. en bejfe , keep 
warm the Feet and the Head, but for 
the reft live as the Beafls. 

4. To take cold and wet in the Feet 
in Winter-time weakens the Eye-fight, 
and injures the Memory, becaufe of that 
great Correfpondence that there is be- 
tween thefe two Extremities, the Head 
and the Feet. 

5. An extraordinary and hot Air, or a 
burning Sun, difturbs the Mind, and pre- 
judices Memory, if we fuiFer it long to 
work upon us. 

6. All windy Foods and Drinks are 
not good for the Afliftance of Memory, 
but rather contrary, unlefs Nature car- 
ries them fpeedily off in the ordinary 

7. We mull avoid eating in the Eve- 
ning fuch things as may increafe too 
much the afcending Vapors, and caufe a 
too great Humidity in the Brain, or 
may be of an ill Digeition, or may too 
much fume up into the Head : for tho 
fuch things may incline to Sleep, they 
may have a bad Eifed upon the Seat of 
Memory ^ and remember thefe feafona- 
ble Verfes, 


jj^6 T^he Art of Memory. 

Bx magna Coenafiomacho fit maxima poend^ 
Vtfis no^e k'v'^^fit tibi Coena hrevvs, 

8. Forbear drifiking too much imme- 
diately after eating, chiefly after Supper^ 
for that will but fpoil and hinder Di- 
geftion, and will prove offenlive to the 
Brain and Memory. 

p. An extraordinary Idlenefs and Lar 
^zinefs of Body begets and encreafes ill 
Humours, which have bad Influence upoii 
the Faculty of Memory: Therefore' a 
moderate Exercife beconies us as Men, 
and is very ufeful for our Health, and the 
Safety of our Being ; as an antient Phi- 
lofopher taught his Difciples, by telling 
them, that Exercitium confert ad Corpus 
& Animum ^ that Exercife is profitable 
both to the Body and Soul. 

10. Forbear fleeping immediately after 
a plentiful Supper or Dinner^ before the 
Food hath pail down from the Orifice 
into the bottom of the Stomach ^ for 
there is nothing more pernicious, be- 
caufe it prevents the working of Nature, 
and caufeth often the good Food to be- 
come bad, and todiilurb boththe Body 
and Mind. 

31, A 

The Art of Memory. 47 

1 1. A too frequent and violent ufe of 
FenuSy when the Stomach is altogether 
empty^ or too full, or contrary to the 
Rules of Conjugal Chaftity and Religion, 
is very dangerous, not only to the Body, 
but alfo to the Soul, and all its Faculties : 
For fuch an irregular Ad draws a Curfe 
after it, and obligeth our jult and wife 
God to withdraw his Bleflmg from fuch 
Contemners of his Laws, enaded for our 
Safety and Prefervation. 

12. Fear, Sadnefs, Anger, violent 
Paffions, and melancholy Thoughts are 
no Friends to Memory; for they diflurb 
the Mind, dilquiet the Soul, aaddiforder 
all the Faculties. 

13. A too violent Vomiting is deflru* 
^ive to Memory, becaufe it forces Na- 
ture, and difcompofes the Brain. 

14. A difquieted Mind can never 
make ufe of Memory, tho the Faculty 
may be good, and ailifted by Exercife, 
and ftrengthned by Habit ; yet while the 
Soul is alarmM, and difiatisfied, it can 
iiever in the midft of its Troubles ufe 
its Memory with Freedom, and fo well^ 
as in a more peaceable Temper and Dif- 

1$. All 

48 The Art of Memoryl 

1 5. All fuch Motions of the Body as 
caufe Giddinefs, or Swimming in the 
Head, are deftruftive to Memory. 
Therefore we fliould have a fpecial care 
to avoid Falls from high Places, turning 
round, or Blows upon the hinder part of. 
the Head. For, if we may believe Thu^ 
cidides^ fome by that means, in the Gre- 
cian Wars, loft totally the ufe of their 
Memories : For by that Violence the Seat 
of Memory received fo great a Prejudice, 
that the Faculty could make no ufe of it ; 
and the Contufion was fo great, that the 
Brain was difturbed, and could receive 
.no more ImprelTions, nor prefervethem 
that were there before. 

Thefe Experiments are not to be neg- 
lected, by thofe who delign to attain to 
a Perfeftion of Memory ^ for tbey are of 
dangerous Confequence, as our Experi- 
ence can witnefs, to the Faculty of Me- 
mory, and to the other Functions of the 

C H A ?> 

The Art of Memory] 40 


Of fuch Natural Things as may he 
^/fiJiingtOy and may comfort Me- 
mory^ from the Procurement of 
T^ature^ and the Contrivance 
of Art. 

GOD and Nature have bellowed upon 
us Faculties and Abilities, and w ith 
them Means to inlarge and afllft them in 
the performance of their feveral OfEces. 
As there are fonie things to be avoided^ 
which may be pernicious to them, fo 
tliere are others to be ufed and employed 
for this good purpofe, for a more ready 
Execution and Difcharge of their Duties 
and Fundtions, Memory, this excellent 
Ability of the Soul, may meet with many 
Helps in the Courfe of Nature to 
ftrengthen it, and render it more per- 
feft. I fhall recommend thefe following. 
I . A moderate and convenient Exer- 
dfe of Body before we fit to Meat, to 
E pre- 

5 Tl)e Art of Memory. 

prepare the Stomach for a more hearty 
Reception, and a better Digeflion, is 
ufeful not only to the Faculty of Memo- 
ry, but to all other Animal Fundions*, 
for from thence proceed thofe good Spi- 
rits which help all the OiEces of the 
Brain, and make it more able to adt with 
Vigour : Such an Exercife, I mean, as 
may be anfwerable to the Abilities, Cal- 
ling, and Employment of the Ferfon ; 
fiich an Exercife as may free lis from ail 
Natural Superfluities, which may incom- 
mode, incumber, or burden Nature. 

2. It becomes us to feed upon fuch tem- 
perate Meats as may agree with our Sto- 
machs as well as our Appetites,and to eat 
and drink with that Moderation, as may 
tend to ilrengthen and not to deltroy Na- 
ture : for as there is nothing more perni- 
cious to the Faculty of Memory than Ex- 
cefs, Drunkennefs, and Gluttony, fo there 
is nothing that can better preferve it 
than a fober ufe of thofe good things that 
Nature affords to fupply the daily Defici- 
encies, and corroborate' our Strength. 

?. There are fome things that may hin- 
der the ill Fumes of the Stomach from 
afcending higher, which are ufeful to 
faength'en ' Memory after a plentiful Re- 

The Art of Memory. 5 i 

palt, asStiptick, Fruits well prepared by 
Art or Nature, Coriander Seed well pre- 
ferred w ith Sugar, and other Things. 

4. A moderate Joy and Contentment 
of Mind is very profitable for the prefer- 
ving and fortifying this Ability of Me- 
mory : For if the Soul be uneafy, all the 
chief Faculties are diilurbed, more efpe- 
cially Memory, and render'd more unfit 

5. To wafh our Feet often in hot Wa- 
ter, wherein we have boiled fome Ca- 
liiomile, Lawrel, Balm-mint, and fome 
other odoriferous Herbs, is very comfor- 
table to the Brain, the Eyes^ and the 
Memory : For befides the good eff^ed the 
hot Liquor hath upon the Head, the 
Scent of fuch Heirbs ferves very much to 
t*efrefh the Spirits, and comfort the 
Brain. Therefore in Summer the fmell 
of Rofes, and other fragrant Flowers, 
is not ufelefs, but advantageous to this 

5. A convenient Purgation of all Su- 
perfluities of Nature is likewife helpful 
to the Faculty of Memory : for v^hea 
there is a Stoppage of that which ought 
to be cafe out, there is a Burden that is 
not only troublefom to the Perfon, but 
E 2 alfo 

5 1 The Art of Memory. 

alfo of a dangerous Confequencc to the 
Health and Life, and to all the Superiout 
Faculties and Fundions that are thereby 
hindered in their Adions and Opera- 

Now Phyficians inform us, that this 
tender part of Man, namely the Brain, 
is injured and prejudiced by three Means. 
Firit, By a violent breaking in of the Ex- 
crements of the Body, or of any part of 
It. Secondly, By nourifliing and har- 
bouring fbme ill Quality. Thirdly, By 
retaining the ufual and natural Purgati- 
ons, when they have not their ordinary 
Courfe by the common PafTages appoint- 
ed by our wife Maker : For as there are 
continual Vapours afcending to the Brain 
from the inferior parts, defigned for the 
nourifhing and affifting the Brain in the 
feveral Fundions of Life ^ fo there mull 
be fome Evacuations for that which is fu- 
perfluous and ufelcfs in Nature, to be 
voided. Now thefe Vapours, if they 
have any ill Quality, or are any ways 
bffenfive to the Brain, do quickly hin- 
der the Operations of Life and Reafon. 
I^or there is no part of the Body more 
tender than this, no Part is fooner and 
liiore fufceptible of pernicious Fumes 


The Jrt of Memory • 5: j 

and Vapam-s than the Brain. Our good 
God therefore hath provided, amongfl 
the Natural Things, a great many An- 
tidotes, and comfortable Herbs, &c, 
which are proper to help and reftore the 
Brain to its ufual Temper and Perfedion, 
and confequently to aifift an4 preferve 
Memory. Now amongft the Natural 
Things, and thofe that may be prepared 
by Art fiDr the ufe of Memory, are ei- 
ther ^ouders for the Head, or Pouders 
to fnuff up in the Nofe j plaiilers to 
apply to the Temples or other paii: 
of the Head ^ Bathings, Drinks, Fruits, 
Gonfedions, Smells, Plirgations, Oint- 
ments, &c. 

I . Of Pouders to dry up the Humours 
of the Head, and cleanfe the Hair: they 
are very ufefulfor the ftrengthning of the 
Memory, when thePerfonisof amoift 
Temper, and that he finds a too great 
Humidity to burden the internal part, 
and difburb his Fancy •, or if he be often 
afflided with a Cephalalgia^ proceeding 
from Cold or Vapours. But fuch Pou- 
ders are to be made of Odoriferous 
Herbs, and well fcented, which may be 
pleafing to the Smell. Riverius prefer ibes 
for this purpofe, this excellent Pouder. 
E 3 Mt 

54 '^'^^ ^^^ ^f ^'^^^^orj. 

Fuhem Ireos Fhrentiniy lb fs ^ Storacis^Ben- 
joini^ ana ^ ii. fiat fulvvs tenuijjifnus capil- 
lus infpergendm in leBi introitu^ & mane 
jectlne dfcutiendus *, /i ejflcaciam intendere 
volutm^adde caryophillos ^ nucemmofihatam^ 
& cinamomum. ^ 

2. Sneezing Ponders well prepared 
are of great ufe, hut may prove per- 
nicious if any thing is ofFenlive to the 
Brain in the Compoiition. Now the fame 
Author recommends the dried Leaves of 
xMarjoram, Sage, Roferaary, the Roots 
of the Herb Pyrethrum^ of Lingwort 
perfumed with Musk, to be a choice 
Sneezing Pouder, to comfort the Brain 
and Memory. And the Herb Galangal 
well dried, and reduced to Pouder, is 
very ufeful to ftrengthen Memory. Ano- 
ther good Sneezing Pouder may be made 
of Pepper, with the Herb Cow^/*//, white 
Lingwort, and Lillies, with fome perfu- 
med Gums, But we muft have a care 
not to offend Nature by a too frequent 
ufe of thefe or other Snuffs, which may 
prejudice the Brain. 

3. And as all noifome Smells are hurt- 
ful to the Brain, and when they are con- 
tinually taken are infectious^ fo there is 
a great Benefit lo be expecled from good 

'■■•• '- ^^ ■ an4 

The Art of Memory. 5 5 

and whoifome Scents, as of Flowers, 
Perfumes, &c. This is excellent to com- 
fort the Brain ^ Take Ltgn-aloes^ Frankin- 
cenfe, Gum-maftix, Red Rofes, Leaves 
of Betony, Cinamon, Mace, Spice, Gloves, 
with Styrax •, and with all this make a 
Ponder: cafl it on a Chafing-difh of Coab 
in a Morning, and it will wonderfully 
comfort the Brain and help Memory. 

4. Divers Plaiflers, when, we fiilid ^ 
Decay in Memory, may be ufeful for the 
helping the Brain: As a Plaifler made 
of MullardTeed, and clapt to the hin- 
der part of the Head, or the Oil of 
Muftard-feed when applied to that Part, 
Or if you plea fe to be at greater Ex- 
pence, take Florentine, Liilies, the 
Herbs Hermoda^yk and Pyrcthrum^ Leaves 
of the wild Vine, Pigeon-dung, Muftard- 
feed, of each an Ounce ^ mix them with 
Mofchata Nuts, Spice, Cloves, Cinam on, 
and Pepper, and make aPlaifler, which 
you may likewife apply to the hinder 
part of the Head, and you will find it 
will increafe and help Memory. And a 
certain famous Author afliires us, that 
the Gall of a Partridg anointed about 
the Temples does wonderfully flreng- 
f:ben the Seat of Memory^ as alfo the 
E 4 Brains 

5 6 7he Art of Memory. 

Brains of Birds and Fowls roafted, and 
chiefly of Hens, are not ufelefs for the 
fame purpofe. 

5. If you pleafe to try this Experi- 
nient, you will find it of great ufe, as 
fome Learned Phyficians tell us. Take 
the Seed of Orminum^ and reduce it to 
Pouder, and every Morning take a fmall 
quantity in a Glafs of Wine. And they 
fay that the Shavings or Pouder of 
Ivory produce the fame EfFeft, namely, 
the corroborating of the Brain and Me- 
mory*, as likewife a Grain of white 
Frankincenfe taken in a Draught of Li- 
quor when we go to Bed, dries up the 
bfFenfive Humours of the Brain. And it 
liath been obferved, that the Applica- 
tion bf Gold to that Sutura which di- 
vides the Seat of Memory from the other 
Clofets of the Brain, ftrengthens the 
Weakhefs of the Head, drives away all 
Pain, and hath a wonderful EfFed upon 
the Faculty of Memory. 

6, There are fome Ointments to be 
made for the fame Intent, as this ; Take 
of the Fat of Hens or Capons, together 
with the Fat of a Cow, and Gum of Ivy, 
of each a Pound \ which being diflilled 
in a Lymbick with a foft Fire into art 

• Oil, 

7l?e At of Memory. 5 jr 

Oil, is very good to anoint the Temples 
and the Wrifts three times a Week. 
Here is another Ointment which Arifio- 
tie is faid to have often ufed for thq 
Itrengthning of his Memory: Take of 
the Fat of Moles, Bears if it be to be 
had, of Weefel and Bev^r, orinfteadof 
that of Otter, of each an equal Quanti- 
ty, Juice of Betony and Rofemary \ of 
all which make an Ointment to anoint the 
Temples chiefly in cold Weather. 

A famous Author tells us, Vt profunda 
Jliemoria teneas^ & perpetuo utq-j velociter 
apprehendas^ hoc ufi funt multi magni Vm : 
Recipe radkum lingua hovina^ r^dicum va- 
Imana;^ ana unci as quatuor •, radicum rut a 
uncias duas ^ fac inde pulveres fubtilijjimos : 
poflea recipe fuccum euphragia^ fclarea 
five ormini^ berbenaque^ ana uncias qua- 
tuor ^ coletur bene fuc CVS per p annum : poftea 
mifce fuccos fimul^ 6^ pulveres feparatim : 
poftea recipe meduUam anacardorum uncia 
unins pondere^ ^ fac pulverem ut fupra. 
Item recipe Ungua d'vis^ id eft femen fraxi- 
ni^ iy fac pulverem fubtilijjimum :■ poftea. 
mifce omnia pradiBa fimul^ fcilicet fuccos 
& pulveres^ & accipe fartaginem terream, 
vitreatam^ & pone adignem^ intufq^ pone 
^x urfi pinguedine^ & funds feu liquefac 

■ paula- 

5 8 7 he Jrt of Monory. 

faulatim^ & intos frojice diBos fulveres^ 
cum fuccis mifcendOj jemper apponendo de 
di&o pinguedinc^ quoufq-j fiat Vnguentum 
fubtilijjimum j quo unge temfora^ & partem 
Memoriae J & front em^ & mrticis partem 
verfus nucham \ hocq-j ter ml quater in anno 
fades ^ & continuahh fie ungendo etiam^ pro- 
ut magh aut minus oportebit* Hoc enim in 
virtute excedit fuperfiitiofam artem noto- 

Again, another Experiment may be 
tried for the fame purpofe. Recipe oBo 
calices aqua communis^ foliorum hedera:^ fit- 
chadvs^ ana lib. unamfemvs y ponantur fimul 
in aqua^ ad hulliendum fere ad confumptio- 
nem aqua 'j^oJlea^.coletur bencj & expri- 
tnatur^ dr intiis pone modicum terebintbince 
lota cum rofaceo : pofiea caput lava cum 
bono lixivioy & poft ficcatiomm unge cum 
pradiiJo liquore tempora if occiput. 

The fame Author recommends to us 
the making of this perfum'd Apple for 
the comforting of the Brain and Memory. 
Recipe Ladani^ ligni jlloes^ Styracvs^ ana 
drach, unamiy C aryophillorum^ nucis tnof- 
chata^ fcjmms Oumij ana drach, . femis^ 
cum aqua r of ace a ^ in qua nonnihil Mofchi 
(&• Ambari diffolutumfit ^ fiat ponmnu 



7 he Art of Memory. 5 9 

Another Prefcription we find reconi- 
mended to us by a worthy Author ia 
this manner. Ad habendam profundam 
memorianiy njel fic^uvs earn ex debilitate V€l 
infirmitate amifijfet \ valet etiam yertigini, 
Recife Roris marini^ id eft Libanotidis^ Bo- 
raginvs^ Cbama^melij Fiolarum^ Rafarum^ 
ana unciam unam \ foliorum Lauri, Majo- 
rani€j Salvia^ ana knci^6 duos : omnia in- 
cide^ & fone in Optimo f'ino^ & poft diem 
deftilla per alembicum vitreum aut vitrea- 
turn \ & deftillatum ferva^ in quo pone 
T^Yebinthina odor at ce lib> unam^ Thuris alba 
mcias oBo \ Maftich'vs^ Myrrha^ Bdellii^ 
Anacardorum^ ana uncias quatuor : omnia 
tere^ & dimitte fic ftare per dies quinque 
cum deftiUatione cooperta-^ poftea deftilla 
in tantum cum igne fortiori^ donee ex eis 
oleum habeas^ quod ferva bene claufum in 
ampulla vitrea^ bene cum cera & pergamento 
obturata. Modus ufus talis eft : Recipe ex 
eo quantum caperet cortex avellana; per os^ & 
unge etiam partes Memoria;^ fcilicet occiput^ 
& quafvvs partes jam diBas optimum eX' 

Some Phyficians order Pills for the ufe 
of Memory to be made in this manner. 
'Recipe Cubebarum^C alaminthiie^ Nucis mof- 
^hatic^ ^aryophillorum fing, drach, unam 

6o Tl?e Art of Mtmoryl 

fenrn \ fhuris opimi^ J^rrha ek^a^ uinh 
ban orientalis fing, fcrupuium unum femi/s^ 
Mofchl grana quinque^cum aqua Major ana : 
{Hulas confice , recipe unam hora decubitus^ 
duas vero in jblvs ortUj hor'vs quinque ante 
Cibum, Hyerne per tnenfem^ Fere 6* Autum- 
no rariits. 

Aliud pr&batiffimum Experimentufn ad 
Ingenium & Memoriam^quodferunt ejfe Ari- 
ftotelis. Recipe urfi pinguedinem^ quam ha" 
bet in humero feu fpatula dextra^ eamq-y re- 
pone in "uefica ipfius urfi^fimul cum ejus uri- 
na^ iy ftmulfient oCto diehm : turn extrahe & 
accipefuccum Ormini^ five Sclarea domefti^ 
€dd^ Euphragidd^ Berbena^BugloJJi^ Valeriana y 
Aloes ^ omnium aqualiter^ & fimul mifce 
icum pradi&a pinguedine fuper ignem^ cum 
lignea fpatula agitando quoad fiat Vnguen- 
turn fpiffum \ ex quo cum volueris accipe 
quantitatem parvafaha^& ungefrontem & 
tempora fricando aliquantifper, & audita 

Lixivium pro ablutione Capitis humidi 
frigidique comfort ativum^ & Memoria con^ 
fcrens^ debet autem ejfe ex Cinere Sarmen- 
torum vel ^ercus^ poflea intus hac buli-^ 
ant. Recipe Acori veri^ Stichadvs^foliorum 
Laurij Roris mariniy Iva^ Salvia^ ana ma- 
iiipulum unum j €x iflo lavato caput : poft 


The Art of Memory . 6i 

mro ahlutionem aqu^ ^vita modico finciput 
madefacito^ iy fequenti pulvere afpergito. 
Recife Pulegii^ Calamintha.^ CaryophiUorum^ 
Sandaraca^ Mads^ Stkhadas^ mmtaficas^ 
Mdjorana^ ana drach. c^inque ^ mifce^ & 
fiatfulvisfubtilis^ &{oft infperfionemfuper" 
fone fiup0m canabis ^ aliis quoq\ diebus irt'- 
grediem leBum^ pone fuper capitis bregma" 
te ex pulvere illo etiam ilioto capite^ nam 
ficcatj &c. 

And Ludovicus Mercatus advifeth to 
make this Water, whieh he faith has a 
wonderful Virtue for the relloring and 
ftrengthening of decayed Memories^ 
Recipe Aquarum BugloffcSj Betonica^ FlO' 
mm labia ^ ana lib, i . Aqua Fit a optima^ 
lib, fs ^ Florum Anthos^ Rofarum^ & Ma- 
jorana^ & Florum Buglojfa^ ana P, j. fpC' 
sierum confe^ionis anacardina g iii j. infun^ 
dantur flores in aquis fuo tempore^ & tan-- 
dem [pedes ^ &fientin loco foils vel digefii-- 
onis per menfemy pofiea in Balneo extrahatur 
aqua^ cujus noQu i'lj, aut | fs. forrigts vei 
accipies, « 

C H A P. 

6 1 The Art of Memory. 


(l^les to he^hferYed for the ABs 
or ^raBlce of Memory. 


Emory, as we have already ob- 
ferved, being an excellent Facul- 
ty or Ability of the Soul, it is by con- 
fcqucnce to produce Ads anfwerable to 
it felf ^ which Ads by degrees form an 
Habit, that Hrengthens the Ability, and 
makes it more ready and'^ble again to 
appear in Adion : for the more we ufe 
this Ability, the more able and perfed 
wefhan render it, whereas by Negled 
and Sloth Men lofe this natural Gift, and 
it becomes ufelefs. 

Now for the better exerciiing of Me- 
mory, and for the. accompiifliing this 
i*are Faculty, I fhall recommend thefe 
following Rules, which I fhall defire thole 
Pierft:>ns to obferve and pradife that in- 
tend to M^^ their Memories either in a 
Pulpit, or at the Bar, or on any other 
occafion vdiere they delire to deliver 


The Art of Memory. 6 j 

their Meditations without the Affiftance 
of Book or Paper. 

I. Let the Subjed that we treat upon, 
or the Matter or Difcourfe that we de- 
liver, be rational and worthy of our own 
Efleem : For the things that we admire, 
or that afford us Pleafure in the reading 
or hearing of them, make a deeper Im- 
preflion in our Minds than thofe things 
we value not. As this Faculty is noble, 
it retains willingly nothing but what h 
anfwerableto it felf : likewife any thing 
flrange and unufual, or that which is ft- 
table to our own Genius and Temper, 
commonly finds in Memory a kind Re-^ 
ception, and a longer Retention, it is 
therefore the Advice which a yjUq P»laii 
recommends to young Students, Sap- 
entem audire Frofceptorem^ que?n etmm coga- 
m admirari^ plurim^im en'im Mtmona ccn- 
ducit ^ To hear a wife Tutor whom we 
ought to admire, becaufe Admiration is 
a great Advantage to remember his In- 
flrudions. And amongll the Keys of 
Wifdom he reckons this to be one. Ho- 
nor Magiftri^ a particular Refped not 
only for the Perfon of our Teacher, but 
a Value that we mnib put upon his Words 
and Diredions, that we may treafbre' 


64 The Art of Memory. 

them up for our own life and Benefit : 
Fbr tho Mertiory by the Naturalifls ii 
compared to a Sive, or (retifimilk) to i 
Net, 'tis in refpedt of thofe weak and 
unfaithful Memories that never retain 
the things committed to their Cuftody, 
and that lofe theni as foon as they have 

2. Let ther^ be a Method and conve- 
nient Order obferved, and a Coherence 
in the Difcourfe that we dcfign to de- 
liver 5 for it will be far more eafy to 
mind and remember what hath a mu- 
tual Dependance one upon another, than 
that which is without Order or Method. 

3. Let every thing that we defire 16 
remember be fairly written and diflinft- 
ly, and divided into Periods with large 
Charaders in the beginning j for by this 
means we fhall the more readily imprint 
the Matter and Words in our Minds, the 
more remarkable the Writing appears to 
the Eye. This Senfe conveys the Ideas 
to the Fancy better than any other ^ and 
what we have feen is not fo foon for- 
gotten, as what we have only heard. 
Therefore Cicero tells us, in 5. de Oratore ; 
Facilius ad ea qua vifa funt^ quam ad ea 
^uce audita funt OcuU Mentis fenmtur : 


7he Art of Memory] 6< 

That the Eyes of the Underftanding, and 
confequently Memory, are carried more 
eafily to the things that are feen, than 
to thofe that are heard. 

4. Let thefe Charaders, or Beginnings 
of every Period, be well imprinted in our 
Minds, for they will quickly bring thi- 
ther the whole Difcourfe alfo. No 
fooner fhall we think upon the firfl En- 
trance, but wc Ihall have a profped of 
all the reft in our Imagination. And it 
will be no fmall Afiiftance to our Memo-* 
ries, if thefe firfl: Letters of every Sen- 
tence or Period can luckily exprefs fome 
known or remarkable Word or Thing in 
every Page. As Buxtorf in his Hebrew- 
Grammar, that Students may remember 
th.e Letters which change their natural 
Pronunciation by the Infcription of a 
Bagefh^ hath gathered them together in 
the word Begadkephat, And that they 
might not forget thofe Letters which are 
named ^iefcentesj that are written and 
fometimes not pronounced, he hath put 
them together in the word Ehevi, Thus 
if we may happily join all the firfl: Words 
of every Sentence fo as to exprefs fome 
remarkable Thing, orSubjed, or Word, 
we flial] remember more eafdy the g.e- 
F ginning^; 

66 The At of Memoryl 

gimiings of every Period or Sentence ; 
and by taking every Letter in order one 
after another, come to the remembrance 
of all that is written in the Page without 
any difficulty; for the Beginning will 
lead us to all the reft. This DireSion 
may be of great ufe to weak and infirm 

5. If we will have the Command of 
our Memory, and fecure it from the 
frailty of Oblivion, or the apprehenfion 
of a Miftake, it becomes us to have in 
our Minds well imprinted the Abbrevia- 
tion of our whole Difcourfe, and the 
chief Heads, fo that in an inftant we 
may be able to recoiled and caft our in- 
ternal Eye upon any part of the Matter 
that ought to lie as it were before our 
Fancies ; for in this cafe if any Inter- 
ruption happens, or any Cafualty comes 
accidentally to difturb the Series of our 
Difcourfe, we Ihall be the more ready and 
better able to call to mind our Bufinefs, 
and proceed on with more Courage, Re- 
folution, and lefs fear of -a Mifcarriage, 
becaiifc we may be certain, that in an 
unexpected Weaknefs of Memory we 
fliall have a Remedy at hand to re- 
lieve us in cafe of need, and we fhall 


The Art of Memory. 67 

fpeak with more Confidence and Bold- 
nefs, the more we fhall know our felves 
fecure from Frailty. Therefore it is 5e- 
neca\ Advice, that in a large Difcourfe 
we fhould have it abbreviated and con- 
traded to certain principal Heads, for 
the prevention not only of Confufion, 
but alfo of that Diforder that multipli- 
city of Words and Matter is apt to caufe 
in weak Memories. 

6, Let there be a local Apprehenlion 
of our written Difcourfe well fixed in 
the Mind, and in the Delivery of it let 
the Fancy proceed on, and the Imagina- 
tion leifurely didtate the Matter, and the 
Words as they are couched in our Paper. 
This local Apprehenfion is the greateft 
help to Memory, and chiefly li the Cha- 
raders, as we have formerly noted, be 
fairly written, and remarkable to the 
Eye and Fancy ^ for as they give a deeper 
IraprefTion into the Mind, they become 
more legible, and are not fo foon de- 

7. When we firll intend to recover a 
Difcourfe, and get it into our Memories 
we ought to read it quietly vv'ith the 
greatefl Attention and Intention of the 
Mindj fetting afule all other Bulinefs. 

F 2 which 

6 8 7he Art of Memoryl 

which might incumber or intertupt us. 
We mufl for this purpofe fummon all 
our Thoughts to attend upon the Bufi- 
nefs in hand, and ferioufly read over eve- 
ry Period and Sentence^ for without 
this Intentionit is impoffible to be able 
to imprint any thing well into our Ima- 
gination. And before we proceed on 
tod far, it becomes us to get well a Part 
by Heart, that our Memories may go 
on more fecurely and gradatim^ by de- 

8i Therefore it becomes us for this 
purpofe to repeat often over what we 
have already learned, and foftly to ut- 
ter every Sentence one after another. 
This Repetition will be of great ufe both 
for the getting it more perfed, and for 
the more eafy delivery ^ for when the 
Tongue is accultomed to the Expreflions, 
it will more readily deliver them again. 
And we find by Experience, that Verfes 
and other Difcourfes that we have often 
fpoken, when once we begin to deliver 
them, they drop from usinfcnfibly *, and, 
?.s a Man that is ufe to run in a Career, or 
^ov<!'A a Hill, we cannot Hop till we come 
to the end. 

g. After 

Tlye Jrt of Memory. 6^ 

9. After we have thus gotten into our 
Memory a Difcourfe in the beginning, we 
mull fuppofe that it is not confirmed in 
us, and muft therefore run it over by a 
frequent Meditation, chiefly in the Eve- 
ning when we are going to Bed, or in 
thofe Intervals that we cannot fleep ^ for 
then the Silence of the Night, and the 
Quiet of the Time, are very proper to 
flrengthen in Memory what we have 
committed to its Cullody. Thefe Me- 
ditations are efteemed by Arifiotle the 
greateft Affiftance of Memory^ and 
Ptolomey calls Meditation the Key of 
Truth. Truly without this Practice a 
Difcourfe can never be well digefted, 
but will come from us raw, perliaps as a 
LefFon from a School-boy ^ neither can 
we be able without it to make it our own, 
nor to give that Life and Virtue to it 
that is needful to aiFed the Minds of our 
Auditors. Therefore a Difcourfe ought 
to have a convenient: time to fettle in 
our Memories, that they might often run 
them over by Meditation, 

10. Let young Men take care to exer- 
cife their Memory betimes, for by a fre- 
quent Pradice we gain and flrengthen 
the Habit of Memory, Let not the 
F 3 Diffi^ 

70 The Art of Memory • 

Difficulties that may appear in the Be- 
ginning fright or caufe us to difcontinue, 
but refoiutely proceed on in the accu- 
lloming our Faculty to retain both Mat- 
ter and Words. I know fome charge 
their Memory with nothing but the Mat- 
ter, but it is as eafy to mind the Words 
when once we have ufed our felves to the 
Pradi'ce. Cicero writes of LucuUus and 
fJortcnfius^ two famous Orators of the 
Roman Empire, vv^ho had vafl Memories, 
that the former remembred Matter, the 
other Words, and prefers therefore Lu- 
cuUus before Horten/ius : but I conceive 
that Orator to be the moft accompliih'd, 
who having penn'd his Difcourfe in fuch 
a manner, that it fpeaks weighty Matter 
as well as Words, is able to deliver it 
iwrbatim v/ith Deliberation and Vigor. 
Seneca tells of hirafelf, that he could re- 
peat two thoufand dillind Names one 
afcer another without any Miftake, fo 
large was his Memory, which proceeded 
from a long and continued Exercife ^ for 
by this means we fhall attain to a great 

II. Beware of taking a Pride, and 
glorying in our Memory. As we are to 
ufe it in necefiary Occafions for the Glory 


The Art of Memory. y i 

of God, the Edification of his Churchd 
and Inflrudion of the People, I woul e 
not have any vainly to boall or prefuni 
too much upon the Strength of Memory' 
but to look upon it as a Gift proceeding 
from God's Bounty to us. Staupitius^ a 
Tutor of Martin Luther^ in a Sermon 
thought, in a vain Oltentation of Me- 
mory, to repeat all the Genealogy of 
Chrifl mentioned by St. Matthew -^ but 
when he came to the Captivity of Baby- 
lon^ his Memory failed him, which caufed 
him to take the Affiftance. of his Book, 
with this ExprelTion, I [ee^ faid he, that 
God refifteth the Proud. How many have 
there been, who vainly priding in this 
Excellency of the Soul, have been to- 
tally deprived of their Memories, for- 
gotten their own Names, their dearelt 
Relations, drc. ? The Gifts of God are 
not to be employed as Inllruments of our 
Pride and Folly. Our Great Creator is 
fenfible of the Injury done to his Libe- 
rality, when we afcribe to our Indullry, 
Sobriety, or the Goodnefs of our Tem- 
per, what is moll and chiefly due to his 
Bounty. Several fad Examples there- 
fore of the Refentment of his Jullice 
have appeared before our Eyes,of Perfons 
F 4 who 

7 1 The Art of Memory] 

who have altogether loft in a manner 
what was the greateft Subjed of their 
Glory ^ that we might learn to avoid 
fuch Provocations, and behave our felves. 
with Humility and Thankfulnefs to his 
unwearied Goodnefs, always giving to 
him the Honour of our Perfedions and 

1 1, For the better Prefervation of 
the Faculty of Memory, it becomes us 
to know well its Strength, Ability, Reach 
and Frailty, that we may take Meafares 
accordingly : for the loading of our Me- 
mory too much may be as prejudicial to 
it, 5s the taking of too heavy a Burden 
upon our Shoulders will be to our Body 
and Loins ^ for it will wrong the Faculty 
it felf, and diiinable it from further Ser- 
vice, Befides, the Ignorance of our own 
Weaknefs may expofe us to the Shame 
and Laughter of the World, when we 
ihall prefume to undertake what we can- 
not well perform. And as it is with a 
Man's Stomach when it is filled, cramm'd 
more than Nature will bear, no Digefti- 
on can polTibly be there ^ and inftead of 
llrengthning the Body, the Health is 
impaired, and a (hameful Diforder hap- 
pens : So 'tis with the Memories of Men, 


The Jrt of Memory. 75 

they mult not be too much loaded, nor 
burdened with more than they can well 
bear,' according to the Saying of Horace^ 

Sumite Materiam veftris qui fcribitis aquam 
Virihus^ &c. 

13. If we are to lludy any Liberal 
Art or Science, it becomes us for the 
better Encouragement of our Memories, 
and for a more firm Retention of the 
Dodrines and Principles, to comprehend 
the Senfe, Meaning, and Reafonablenefs 
of them, before we commit them to 
their Guftody. What we underlland is 
our own, and cannot eafily be forgotten. 
Reafon is an excellent Confirmation of 
Memory when it is concerned in that 
Employment \ for whilit our reafoning 
Faculty continues, v/e fliall never forget 
what it hath formerly approved of, as 
agreeing with its internal Principles. 

1 4. And if we are to fpeak in publick, 
it will be a great Advantage to Memory 
that we perfedly underftand the Matter 
and Bufinefs in queftion *, that we are 
fully acquainted with the Argument, 
Myfcery, or Theme that we treat of ^ 
■that we have fcarch'd and ftudied all 


74 ^^^^ ^^^ ^f ^^^ory. 
t:hat may be alledged for or againft it^ 
and have continually a profped of all 
that may be faid upon the Subjed : For 
in cafe Memory Ihould be interrupted, 
difturbed, or fail, it will not be diffi- 
cult then to recover our felves to proceed 
on '-, and if we have any thing of In- 
vention, we may fupply the Defed of 
Memory by our former Knowledge 
however, 'tis a great Affiftance to it to 
remember all the Particulars, and the 
continued Series of Difcourfe, when we 
thus underlland perfedly the Subjed, and 
are no Novices in the Matter that we are 
publickly to deliver. 

I <5. When we betake our felves to our 
Study, or offer to exercife our Memory 
by the delivery of a Difcourfe, we muft 
obferve what hath been faid before to be 
ufeful for the aflilling of Memory, and 
endeavour to avoid what is prejudicial, 
as Gluttony, Drunkennefs, Debauche- 
ry, &c, 

i6. Set afide all other Occupations and 
Employments, and chiefly thofe trouble- 
fome PaOions of the Mind that will not 
fuffer us to enjoy our felves, as Anger, 
Wrath, Envy, Revenge, Lull, Cove- 
toufnefs, Alarms, Fears, ire, for when 


Ihe Art of Memory. y 5^ 

the Mind is totally taken up with fuch 
uneafy Guells, 'tis not pollible to em- 
ploy it about theFundions of Memory, 
according to the old Proverb, 

Pluribus intentus minus tft ad fingulafenfiis. 

17. A convenient time is to be chofen 
for the Exercife of Memory^ for all 
Seafons and Times are not proper, nor 
is the Mind ready difpofed always for an. 
Adivity : We mull therefore chufe fuch 
a time as we know our felves to be bell 
able to retain the Things that we hear 
and read. Neither are all Tempers alike, 
but commonly when we are falling, or 
after a moderate Repail, or in the 
Night-feafon, or in the Morning, moll 
Men are bell prepared for the Exercife 
of their Memories, and to receive the 
Impreflions and Ideas. 

18. 'But one Rule more I mufl add, 
which I look upon to be the thief ^ To 
feek from God by our devout and con- 
llant Prayers, both the Continuance and 
Increafe of our Memories : For 1 mufl 
confefs, that 'tis a particular Gift and 
Favour of our great Creator, who hath 
bellowed upon us fuch a Natural Ability. 


y6 The Art of Memory] 

As therefore it depends upon his Bounty, 
'tis from thence that we mull exped its 
Pferfedion and Welfare. And tho by- 
Art we may remove what is prejudicial 
to it, and help in fome refped the Fa- 
culty *, tho we may prefcribe Rules for 
the Praftice of Memory, yet all our En- 
deavours will prove vain and ineffedual 
without a Blefling from above, which 
we muft llrive to obtain by our Hu- 
mility and Devotion, being the ordinary 
Means appointed by the Divine Wifdom 
for the getting and increafing of all 
Temporal and Spiritual Bleflings. Nei- 
ther are we to doubt of gracious Re- 
turns to our Requefts ^ for we have this 
Afiurance from the Sacred Oracle, If 
you that are evil know how to give good 
things to your Children^ how much mon 
JhaU your Heavenly Father give his Holy 
Sprit to them that ask him ? God hath 
referved to himfelf the bellowing of 
all Spiritual Gifts, and this of Memory 
proceeds from him, not only the Fa- 
culty, but likewife the Pradice depends i 
very much upon his immediate Influence \ | 
for Experience may inform us, that we ' 
have often an inward AlTiflance granted 
to our Petitions, to comfort and help the 


The Art of Memory] yy 

Weaknefs of our Memories in divers 
occafioris, cliiefly where the Intereft of 
Religion and his Honour is concerned, as 
in the publick delivery of his Wor4 
and Will to his People. It becomes 
us therefore in all fuch Inftances not to 
r«ly or prefume too much upon our own 
Strength or Ability, but lean and truffc 
upon the All-fufficiency of the Holy- 
Spirit, who will never be wanting to 
them who earneftly and heartily im- 
plore his gracious Affiftance in time of 


^B^es to he ohfer^ed to help our ^e- 
memhrance of things that ItfC de- 
fire to preferVe in Mind. 

THE Multiplicity of Ideas and Matters 
that we commit to our Memories, 
will fometimes caufe the moft Capacious 
to forget things of the greateil Impor- 
tance. For the better aflifting therefore 


7 8 T^he Art of Memory. 

this Faculty, to call to our Remembrance 
fuch Objeds, thefe Rules are to be ob- 

T. Mind the Order in which thofe 
things were firft entered into our Me- 
mories V for the things that precede will 
oblige us to think upon thofe that follow- 
ed, andtheConfequcncesof things will 
refrefh in our Fancies that which went 
before. It becomes us therefore to re- 
cord them in order with a Connexion 
and a mutual Dependance, and this Or- 
der will diredt our Memories, and help 
them to find out fuch things as were lolt 
and defaced by Forgetfulnefs. There- 
fore a wife Man tells us, ^a bene in- 
vicem ordinatafunt^ bene reminifcibiliafunt ; 
qua njero mcile^ difficulter in Memoriam 
revocantur. The Things that are in good 
order are eafily to be reraember'd, but 
thofe that are without Method or Order 
cannot, without much difficulty, be re- 
called to mind. 

2. For the better remembring of 
things, we ought to compare them with 
thofe things with which we arc familiar, 
or bell acquainted, and that have a Re- 
femblance with them, either in Syllables, 
in Quantity, in Office^ Employment, ^c. 


The Art of Memory] 79 

For this Similitude will certainly imprint 
the Thing or Perfon fo in our Mind, that 
if we do cafually forget, we Ihall the 
more eafily recover the loll Idea, becaufe 
the Idea that we have already in Memory, 
and that hath a Refemblance and Rela- 
tion to that which is abfent in fomc 
known Particular, will lead our Fancy to 
it again. 

3. We may imprint in our Minds, and 
fix Things in Memory, by thinking upon 
their Contraries or Oppolites ^ and we 
may by the fame means better remember 
Things that are almoft blotted out of 
our Imagination. For Example, he that 
remembers an He&oY^ cannot forget ^- 
chilles-^ he that thinks upon a G'o//^ib, will 
alfomind a David: when we reprefent 
to our felves Sobriety or Temperance, 
we cannot but have a Notion of Debau- 
chery and Intemperance. Now if that 
which is contrary is better known to us,. 
it will quickly refrefh the Remembrance 
of that which we had forgotten. 

4. If we defire to mind Things of Im- 
portance, we ought to imprint ail the 
Circumftances in our Memories of Time, 
Place, Perfons, Caufes, &c, becaofe thcfe^^ 
Circumftances being always in our Fancy, 


8o Tf^^ ^^^ ^f Memoyy. 
will alfo keep there the things that we 
intend to preferve from Oblivion. And 
fuch Circumftances will fcarce be de- 
faced if they are recorded in our Me- 
mories by the ajBftance of the Eyes 
from the tliings^4:hemfelves, or from the 
fight of them written or otherwife ap- 
pearing to this Senfe : for as a Shadow- 
can never be without a Body, nor a 
Form without a Subllance, neither can 
the Circumftances be in our Minds with- 
out that Reality that vye purpofe not to 

5. We may think upon Things, and 
remember them by their Properties and 
Qualifications. For Example;, ifwede- 
fire to remember a grofs and fat Man, we 
may think upon King Dionyfiiis^ of whom 
an Author tells us, that he grew fo fat, 
that he could fcarce fee, and that at lalt 
his Eyes were clofed up with Fat. 

6, If we defire to remember any thing, 
let us mind that Circumflance that is be- 
longing to it, raofl admirable, remarka- 
ble, or futable to our Genius, Temper, 
or Intereft \ for this will fix it in our 
Memories in fuch a manner that it will 
jiot eafily be forgotten. 

7. jf 

The Jrt of Memoryl 8 i 

7. If we have feveral things to record 
in our Memory, note exadly the Num- 
ber of them, with the firft Letter of 
every fuch thing which may cafually 
make up forac Name or Word ^ which 
being fixed in our Mind, will quickly di- 
red us to every particular thing that we 
defign not to forget. For Example, I 
defire to remember Sugar, Almonds, 
Prunes, Oil, and Raifins, I will there- 
fore take the firft Letter of every Word, 
and I find they make Sapor ^ which being 
fixed in the Mind will dired me the 
fooner to the things that I defign to re- 

Some other Rules may be prefcribecj 
for this fame purpofe which our Inge- 
nuity may fupply us with, as a careful Re- 
petition, frequent Meditation, &c, but 
becaufe I have already mentioned thenj 
before, I proceed to reprefent the Fancies 
of fome Ingenious Men, and a Method 
which they lay down, and which may 
Ipmetimes be ufeful I confefs for the 
affifting of an Artificial Memory, and 
which indeed may very well be named 
a Fantaftical Remembrance, becaufe it al- 
together depends upon the Fancy of thf 

G . CHAP. 

8 1 The Art of Memory. 

c HA p. IX. 

of Artificial or Fantajlical SMemo- 
ry or ^membrance. 

ARtificial Memory, faith the Philofo- 
pher, Efi Difpofitio imaginaria in 
mente rerumfen/ibiUum^ fuper quas Memoria 
naturalis rcflexa^ per eas admonetur ut me" 
moratorum facilm diftin^iufq'^ recordari 
valeat : It is an imaginary Difpofition in 
our Mind of fenfible things, upon which 
when our Memory refleds, by them it is 
admonifhed and aflilled to remember 
more eafily and diltindly things that are 
to be minded. And, as Cicero fpeaks, 
Conflat ex loc'vs veluti ex cera aut tabdlay 
& imaginihus veluti figuris liter arum '-, that 
it conlills in Places and Images, ere. 
Now fome prefcribe the Imagination of 
a fair and regular Building, divided into 
many Rooms and Galleries,with differing 
Colours and dillind Pillars, which the 


The Art of Memorjl 8 1 

Party mufl fancy to Hand before him as 
fo many Repofitories where he is to place 
the Things or Ideas which he defigns to 
remember, ordering them according to 
their feveral Circumftances and Qualifi- 
cations, for the better Afiifhance of Me- 
mory. Others, inftead of a Houfe, Pa- 
lace or Building, have chofen fuch Beafls 
as anfwer to all the Alphabetical Letters 
in the Latin Tongue, and inftead of 
Rooms have afligned their feveral Mem- 
bers for our Fancy to fix our Ideas there, 
and place them for our better Remem- 
brance : Thefe are the Names of the 
Beafls, Afinus^BcifiUfcus^ Canis^ Draco^ Ele^ 
fhcvs^ Faunus^ Gryfus^ Hircus^ Juvencus^ 
Leo^ MultiSj No^ua^ OviSj Vanthera^^a^ 
lea J Rhinoceron^ Simia^ Taurus^ VrfuSj 
Xyftusj Hyena^ Zacheus, Every one of 
thefe they divide into five Parts or Places, 
into Head, Fore-feet, Belly, Hinder-feet, 
and Tail ^ for this is the Order that Na- 
ture it felf direds, neither can our Ima- 
gination be difordered in reckoning or 
telling them over. So that by this means 
the Fancy may have one hundred and 
fifteen Places to imprint the Images of 
memorable things. Likewife in the- Pei;- 
G 2 fon 

84 77;e Art of Memory. 

fon fpeaking, we may fix the Ideas of 
things to be remembred, on his Head, 
Fore-head, Eyes, Mouth, Chin, and fo 
downwards on all his Members. But if 
this way of Remembrance be beneficial, 
'tis belt when the Places where we de- 
fign to leave and commit our Ideas are 
more known and familiar to us : as for 
Example, the Town where we live, or 
the City that we are bell acquainted 
with ^ our Mind mufl as it were enter 
by the Gate, and proceed to the feveral 
Streets and Quarters of the City, mark- 
ing the publick Places, Churches, Friends 
Houfes, ire. by this means we may have 
an infinite number of Places to commit 
our Ideas. And becaufe all Diredions 
are beft underftood by Examples, I fhall 
recommend thefe, that this Method of 
temembring may better be comprehen- 
ded. Suppofe therefore a large and 
empty Houfe, unto which we mull not 
go often but feldom ; fuppofe at the En- 
trance there is one Room about three 
Foot from the Door, the fecond about 
12 or 15 Foot, being in a Corner, the 
third being dillant about the fame num- 
fc^r of Feet 7 and fo likewife the fourth, 


Tl?e Jrt of Memory. 8j 

fifth, fixth, feventh, and as many as you 
pleafe, fancying upon them the Number 
that denotes and diftinguifheth the Rooms 
and Corners the one from the other, that 
there may be no. Miftake nor Confiifion 
in our Remembrance ^ or, if you pleafe, 
diftinguifli the feveral Rooms by other 
Charaders than Numbers. Now when 
we have well fettled and divided the fe- 
veral Rooms and Corners in our Imagi- 
nation, where we are to place the Ideas 
ifbr our Remembrance, we muft contrive 
fuch a remarkable Fancy of that thing 
that we intend to put there as may not 
eafily be forgotten, and fuch a Fancy as 
may be remarkable for Folly, Simplicity, 
Wifdom or Wonder, &c. For Example, 
If I will remember any thing adted by 
another, I muft fancy him in one of thefe 
Rooms ading in a ridiculous manner 
that which I defign not to forget. Now 
the Figures that we muft there place ought 
to provoke to Pity, Wonder, Laughter or 
Scorn, that it may make a deeper Impref- 
fion in our Fancy. Again, we may repre- 
fent things by their Likenefs or Contra- 
ries ^ for Example, If we defign to re- 
member Galen^ we will write the Name 


^6 The Art of Memory. 

of fome famous Phyfician well known to 
us, or of fome contemptible Mounte- 
bank. If we will remember Ovidm 
^Nafo^ we fliall reprefent a Man with a 
great Nofe ; if Plato^ we fhall think upon 
a Perfon with large Shoulders ^ if Crif- 
fus^ we fhall fancy another with curPd 
Hair, and fo of other things. But this 
Method of remembring things is cum- 
berfome and fantaftical, and perhaps 
may not be futable to every Temper . 
and Perfon , neither is it proper, or of | 
any ufe for the Delivery of a Difcourfe 
by Memory, but rather for the afiifting 
our Remembrance not to forget fome 
certain Pafiages of our Life, and of 
others, and we may make fome ufe of it 
for the remembring of Sentences and 

I fhall conclude with juft fetting down 
fome other Rules which are prefcribed 
by fuch as recommend this kind of Arti- 
ficial Remembrance, for the better im- 
printing the Ideas in our Mind, and the 
avoiding Confufion. 

I. That the things we defign to re- 
member be three or four times read 


7he An of Memory^ 87 

over or repeated, before we affign to 
them any kind of Images, or noted Spe- 
cies to preferve them, for by this means 
we fliali be better acquainted with them^ 
and they will be lefs ftrange to our Ima- 

2. We mult know how to adapt fuch 
Figures as are moft futable to the things 
to be preferved in our Memory, and fuch 
Figures as are known to us, that we may 
be the more quickly and eafily minded 
of the things therafelves. 

3. Now to fuch Figures we muft affign 
a convenient Action or Motion, for that 
makes a greater Impreffion than fuch as 
are ftill and quiet, and the Imagination 
is more readily moved by a moving Ob- 
jed than by one without Life and Mo- 

4. Such Figures are to be contrived to 
mind us of the things as may excite the 
Paffions of the Soul and the Affedions, as 
Sorrow, Anger, Fleafure, Indignation, 
Wrath, Wonder or Gompaffion. ^f» 
thereby the Soul is more concerned in 
keeping in mind the Things and Ideas 
that we delire to preferve. 

5. W6 

8 8 The Art of Memory] 

5. We are to make ufe of fuch Figures 
as are proper not only for the Things, 
but alfo for the Places where we lay 
them up for our Remembrance, and fuch 
as have a natural Relation to the Places, 
as a Miller grinding in his Mill, the Filh 
in the Water, Birds flying in the Air, 
wild Beafls in a Foreft, ire. And there- 
fore we may rather ufe Natural Figures 
than Artificial, or fuch as our Fancy may 

6. Again, thofe Figures muft not be 
too mean or contemptible, nor too high 
above our ordinary Reach, Capacity, and 
familiar Acquaintance. 

7. Neither are we to make ufe of the 
fame Figures or Images to reprefent di- 
vers things at the fame time : Therefore 
we muft have ready in our Fancy feveral 
Images to pidure out, or form the Ideas 
of the things that are to be remembred. 

8. Such Images are to be often recalled 
in our Mind in the fame order as they 
were placed, with their feveral Circum- 
flances and Properties, and fuch as are 
raoll remarkable and notable : for if by 
chance the Idea be blotted out, thofe 
Gircumftances will quickly renew them 


ihcjirtoj memory. 59 

in our Memorative Faculty ^ and a fi^e- 
quent Repetition will make a deeper Im- 
prellion in our Minds of the things that 
we defire not to forget ^ chiefly if this 
Repetition be made when we are going 
to lay down our Heads upon our Pillows : 
for it is obfervable, that what we think 
upon when we are going to fleep, we 
Ihall have frefh in our Fancy v^hen we 
awake the next Morning. And in thofe 
Intervals that we lie quiet at Midnight 
without deeping, we may eafiiy imprint 
in our Imagination things that will not 
quickly be forgotten. The Mind will 
then be more fufceptible, more retentive 
and tenacious of any Idea that we re- 
commend to it with Deliberation, and 
free from the Incumbrance of Bulinefs : 
for he that will make ufe of his Memory, 
mult knov/ himfelf what time and feafon 
is mofl proper to employ it, when it is 
moll at liberty, and freell: to receive the 
Impreflions or Ideas of Things. 'Tis 
with Memory as with the other Faculties , 
and Abilities belonging to Man, there is 
a time for Action, and a time when they 
are not fit,, and a Temper that renders 
them unable to produce the Natural Ope- 
H . rations. 

po T?;e Art of Memory. 

rations. Such Times therefore, Seafons 
and Tempers are to be chofen for the 
Exercife of Memory when it is altoge- 
ther difingaged from Troubles, Impedi- 
ments, and all Incumbrances, and freeft 
for Adion. Our youthful Days are the 
in oft proper to begin to employ this Fa- 
culty, for we then may fpeedily learn, 
and eafily improve this Ability to our 
great Comfort and Advantage in the 
following courfe of our Lives. And as 
it hath already been obferved, Exercife 
will render us by degrees more perfed : 
So that we Ihall never have caufe to re- 
pent of the Labours and Pains that we 
take in this cafe at the beginning of our 
Days. It is therefore the Advice of a 
wife Author, — - 

Nunc adhibe puro feBore verba puer , 
Nunc te melioribus offer, 
^ojemeleft imbuta recens fervabit odorem 

" Teft0 )iiu. 

And another tells us, Non tantum cele- 
riiis^fed etiam perfeBiks imbuuntur^ qucc a 
puer is difcuntur. Veget. lib. i. 


The At of Memory] p i 

I fhall conclude this Treatife witln 
the two Verfes of Perfius. 

Mitte hominum fpecies & remm difcolor ufus^ 
VeUefuum cuiq;^ efty nee mto vmtur mo. 

And with the Proverb of Heftodj 

And with the Saying of TuUy, 

firtute duce^ comite fortma^ omnia fummtt 
confequi, fojfumus. 


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